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Lecture 4

HSCI 130 Lecture 4: Epidemiology


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HSCI 130
Professor
Rochelle Tucker
Lecture
4

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Definition:thedistributionofdiseasesandthefactorsthataffectit
Climate,diet,culturalpractices,methodsoffoodpreparationandstorage,populationdensity,exposuretopopulation,etc.
Veryconcernedwithtime(longitudinal)andagents(nutritive,chemical,physical,infectious)
Nutritive
"
cholesterol
"
>heartdisease
Chemical" carbonmonoxidepoisoning">tissuedamage/death
Physical" UVlight">skincancer
Infectious
"
Ebolavirus
"
Applications:identifyingthecauseofdisease,assessingriskofexposure,determiningwhethertreatmentsareeffective,hea
lthserviceuseneedsandtrends,
practicalpreventionstrategies
Classificationofdiseaseterms:endemic,pandemic,epidemicoutbreak
Endemic
"
diseasethatarecontinuingoccurringinpopulation
Epidemic
"
outbreakofdiseasethatoccurredinalocalregion
Pandemic" epidemicsthathavespreadbeyondlocalregionandareaffectingpeopleinotherpartsoftheworld
Outbreak" asuddendiseasebloom
iClicker:childrenlivingwithHIVintheworld:>3million
John Snow: father of epidemiology
SolvedthemysteriouscholeraoutbreaksinLondon
2theoriesaboutcholeraatthetime:miasmavs.germtheory(badair/germs?)
SnowbeginsinvestigationofcholerabyexaminingthewaterpumpsofLondon(realizedmostofcholeradeathswerenearshort
distanceofBroadStreetpump,
discoveredsewageleakintowatercontaininggermsthatcausedcholera)
RELYtamponscausedamini"epidemicforwomen,3deaths
Rareoutcome+commonbehavior(fewwomengottoxicshocksyndrome,butmanyusestampons)
September2006:E
"
coliIO157:H7infectionscausedbyorganicspinach
Determining epidemics: 5 W's
WHAT(arewetryingtomeasure),WHO(isbeingaffected),WHERE,WHEN,WHY
Prevalence:
theproportionofindividualsinapopulationaffectedbydiseaseatagivenpointintime
Prevalence=#cases/totalpopulationatgivenpointintime
Prevalenceisnotaunitorrate,itisaproportion/percentage
Canbereportedascases/populationor%
Mustreporttimeperiodatwhichtheproportioncamefrom
Mustknowthenumbersofslide21/43(mapofHIV)
Pointprevalence=(cases" deaths)/(totalpopulation" deaths/lost)
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of
healthrelated states in specified populations, and the application of
this study to control health problems.
About6000newHIVinfectionsadayin2013
About68%areinSubSaharanAfrica
About700areinchildrenunder15yearsofage
About5200areinadultsaged15yearsandolder,47%women
─ 33%youngpeople(15"24)
7. Epidemiology
Tuesday,October6,2015 4:00PM
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