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lecture notes from the whole fall-2009 semester of Ling 110

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LING 110

Sept 18 2009 Ling 110 The matrix - morphology Morpheus he who shapes (shapes dreams) Neo new Cypher zero (guy in background) Lexicon: the set of words in a language - addition and loss of words Contemporary eng has a strict svo word order OE has relatively free word order because it inflected nouns for their function in a sentence Tri = 3 ex tricycle 3 political divisions in ancient Rome = tribe Leader of a tribe is a tribune Payment to a tribe is a tribute Therefore the meaning of tri has changed. Components of Language Phoetics and sound system of language sounds and the way they pattern ad change Morphology methods for creating words Lexicon the set of words in a language Syntax the ways in which words are combined in to phrases Semantics the ways in which words and phrases convey meaning Shibboleths An identifying part of a dialect, IE kitsilano and capilano identify western van and eastern van. How dialects differ? The same way that languages change: lexicon Boot vs trunk Homework: mass or count noun www.notesolution.comPhonetics Semantics (whats a chesterfield) Dialects shift due to the idea of group membership. When ideastechnologiesfoods etc are borrowed the words for them are borrowed as well. Borrowed words stay in a language long enough to begin to look like a native word and follows the rules of the language: basubaru This is evidence that there are rules in a language that words follow. So by looking at the ways words are pronounced and the rules the words follow we can discover from where the word originates. Some languages dont approve borrowing (French, German) Sometimes borrowing is necessary to distinguish concepts (underwater, subaquatic) If a word existed in old English (or old French) then it is an English (or French) word It developed naturally from old English and was NOT borrowed When following a chain of borrowings take it to the last language Refer to the indo-european family tree Voice Aspirates Bh ---> ph Dh ---> th Gh ---> kh Latin: dh bdh f Latin: gh h ie: horticulture English: gh g y ie: garden Assignment
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