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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 100W
Professor
Dc Mc
Semester
Fall

Description
1. Interaction: How? - Descartes has removed the mind from the physical world. - He is at a loss to explain the alleged interaction. 2. Setting aside #1, some say that Descartes‟ dualism is explanatorily empty. - Vitalism in biology. At one time, people explained the difference between living and dead things as a difference in the presence of absence of the élan vital – sort of vital force. This notion is no longer respectable in modern biology. Some ridicule appeal to an élan vital by saying that explaining how a locomotive moves by appeal to the locomotive force would be just as useless. Explaining human behaviour and mentality by appeal to an immaterial mind is no explanation at all – explanatorily bankrupt. 3. Descartes‟ view leads to solipsism about other human minds. - All we can see is behaviour. - There is no way to check the conclusion of the Argument from Analogy. 4. Descartes‟ view entails solipsism about the minds of other animals. - Descartes‟ thought that because animals such as cats lacked a soul, they lacked any mental states. - If a cat meows when you step on its tail, this is the result of mechanical motion. = Mechanically and not because cats have sensations. - Ryle‟s view is „Philosophy or logical Behaviourism‟. - We should understand ascriptions of mental states as ascriptions of behaviour or dispositions to behave. - Statements about mental phenomena could be, in principle, completely translated into statements about behaviour and dispositions to behave. - All competent English speakers know how to use the term, ex, pain, so it much refer to something publicly observable. Therefore, pain must be observable. - There is no worry about solipsism, as mental ascriptions do not refer to anything occult – (hidden). - Why is the official doctrine so popular? - Ryle‟s diagnosis: Dualists have made a category mistake – Cartesian error. University example: Someone comes to visit. You tour them. Yet, they say…I want to see the
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