September 19 , 2012 PHIL 1102 1
Three theories so far:
2. Utilitarianism - CONSEQUENCES
3. Kantianism - INTENTIONS
Immanuel Kant (1724)
Founder of Kantianism
Less interesting than other philosophers
Forced education by dad, nervous breakdown at 20 because of it, knew Greek and Latin by age 5, read
Plato's books by age 10
“We do it because we recognize that we ought to do it.” (Reason, rationality)
Kant does not believe animals are ends. He sees them as an end.
Believed in capital punishment
Had issues with sexual activities don’t treat people as objects
Duty/obligation – what we ought to do despite inclinations or desires to do otherwise
If the store owner knows it’s their duty not to cheat them, that is the only way it is moral.
e.g., If you like cleaning your room, at the end of the day you are doing it because you have a duty or are obligated
to do it, not because you like to.
Feelings – I won’t cheat customers because I like them too much.
o Non-moral because they are subjective and change, self-satisfying, unstable
Fear - doing something we ought to because we’re afraid that something would happen if you didn’t do it
o E.g., paying off a gambling debt because you’re scared you will be murdered
Consequences (e.g., looking at the consequences to decide if you should cheat your store customers)
Prudence – marks most of our behav– acting rationally in your own self-interest
o Brushing your teeth because you don’t want to get cavities
o Exercise to look “hot”
o Not cheating customers because you don’t want to lose your store or be punished
In accordance with duty – afraid of being caught by social services if they don’t care for their kids
From duty – they know that is their duty, as the parents, to take care of their children
Without exception + command/order = an order or command we should follow with no exceptions
A test to determine what our duties are th
September 19 , 2012 PHIL 1102 2
TEST ONE “Act only according to that rule by which you can at the same time wi