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POL 101W Notes Weeks 1-5

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Political Science
POL 101W
Andy Heard

POL 101W – Intro to Pordtics & Government Week 1: September 3 2013 Various Definitions of Politics: 1.Who gets what, when, and how? - Harold Lasswell 2.The authoritative allocation of values for a society. - David Easton 3.The art of the possible. - Otto von Bismarck 4.That activity in which conflicting interests struggle for advantage or dominance. - Rand Dyck Political System: Inputs > Decisions > Outputs > Feedback (David Easton) Power – I: 1.Political Power – the ability to impose one's will on another or to get what one wants Coercion < -------------------------------------------------------------- > Influence 2.Coercion – The imposition of one's will on another by the use of penalty, force, or the threat of force Power – II: 3.Influence – To create a state of mind in others where they anticipate your needs and interests and then accommodate them in their actions. From the Latin influentia 4.Persuasion –Actively engaging people to convince them of the soundness of your ideas, or of the problems they will encounter if they follow other ideas Power III: Power Spectrum Coercion Persuasion Influence Legitimacy – I: 1.Legitimacy –An ethical judgment that something is right and proper Types: 1. Regime 2. Functional 3. Policy Legitimacy – II: 1.Legitimacy is judgment of: Groups & individuals within/outside a society 2.Problem of cultural relativism: If one accepts that morality is the unique product of each society, morality is relative to each society and outsiders cannot make moral judgments Authority: Rand Dyck – authority = legitimate power Essence of authority is something more: The ability to make decisions which others consider binding and obey. Sources ofAuthority: • Traditional deference • Legal Powers of Office • Personal Charisma • Fear of Force • Personal agreement with the command • Strategic compliance to achieve own goals • Acquiescence Acquiescence: Quietly going along with something - whether or not you actually understand, agree with Consent: Consent is agreement in different ways: 1.Explicit 2.Implicit or tacit Must democratic societies be based upon consent? Social Contract – I: Can there be such a thing as a social contract? If so how is consent to that contract given? 1.Explicit 2.Implicit or tacit Different views of JJ Rousseau and John Locke Social Contract – II: 1. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778): Only those present at the formation of a society can give explicit consent “After the state is instituted, residence implies consent: to inhabit the territory is to submit to the sovereign.” Social Contract – III: 2. John Locke (1632-1704): Believed that explicit consent must be given by each individual. Neither natural born or other residents are automatically citizens “But submitting to the laws of any country, living quietly and enjoying the privileges and protection under them, makes not a man a member of that society... Nothing can make a man so but his actually entering into it by positive engagement and express promise and contract.” th Week 2: September 10 2013 Nation: The word 'Nation' can mean either: 1. Acountry or state, or 2. Acultural group of people In this second sense, the word nation comes from the Latin word natio – which means a breed or stock of people Nation & State: • Used to refer to 'nation states' which implied states with a singlecultural nation • There can be a state with population composed of several nations (a multi-national state) • There are also many nations without states Responses to Multinational State: • Creates internal government structures (such as federalism) to accommodate • Try to create single overarching national culture while fostering subgroup identities (ie. Canada) • 'Melting pot' (ie. USA) – recognized as a single cultural image • Officially favour one national culture • Officially adopt foreign language (usually former colonial culture) • Officially suppress other national cultures Nationalism: An expression of pride by a cultural 'nation', often combined with a demand that members of that nation control its distinctive affairs Assumptions of Nationalism: 1.Certain identified populations have shared characteristics that make them nations – quest of a group of people to be recognized as a distinctive group 2.The world is divided into nations 3.Nations have the right to self-determination Self-Determination: Both a philosophical and legal concept – can be applied either to individuals or to groups Essence of self-determination: is that individual or group should be free to pursue their own interests and to make decisions for themselves Right to Self-Determination: 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1.1: All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development 1.2: All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence Problems of Self-Determination: • International documents created in context of decolonization • Do they apply to internal minorities of independent states? • How to define a 'people'? • What about co-mingled peoples in same territory? • What about negative effects of others? • What is end goal of self-determination? Week 3: September 17 2013h Government: Set of institutions and practices that makes and enforces collective public decisions for a society – Rand Dyck Functions of Government: • Rule-making • Rule-application • Rule adjudication Different Types of Governments: 1.Aristocracy – rule of the few for the common good 2.Autocracy – rule of the one in their own interest 3.Democracy – rule of the people for the common interest 4.Monarchy – rule of the one for the common interest 5.Oligarchy – rule of the elite for their own interest 6.Plutocracy – rule of the rich, for their interest 7.Theocracy – rule of the priesthood in their religion's interest Liberal Democracy: • Free and fair competitive elections • Universal adult franchise • Respect for the rule of law • Respect for limited government • Active civil society Types of Democracies: 1.Liberal Democracy – fully functioning elections that are free and fair 2.Transitional Democracy – there are basic elements of a democracy but their elements of authoritarian remains 3.Facade Democracy – has the trappings of democracy but virtually nothing else, just because it has elections does not make it a democracy Authoritarian and Totalitarian Regimes (Similarities): • Desire to maintain power at all costs • Government subject to no constitutional limitations • No authorized process to change the government • Citizens have few rights (if any) • Use of excessive force to control population • Glorification of regime's leaders • Strict control of the mass media Authoritarian and Totalitarian Regimes (Differences): Authoritarian: • Political control limited to public sphere • No coherent ideology Totalitarian: • Political control in all spheres [public and private life] • Single party and ideology Iron Law of Oligarchy: Robert Michels (1911) • All large political organizations develop into oligarchies • The tendency of political power to be concentrated in the hands of a small elite. They rule principally with their own interests in mind and become self-perpetuating elite. State: 'State' can mean either: 1.the government apparatus of a country or, 2.a country itself Elements of a State: • Population • Territory • Political institutions with monopoly on the legitimate use of force; can make authoritative for the people in that populations Types of States: 1.De Facto - “exist as a matter of fact” - informal state 2.De Jure - “exist in law” - formally recognized by other states Recognition of a State (Considerations): • Territory • Population • Government: Sovereign or legitimate • Other states consider objective and political factors before formally recognizing a state • Foreign governments might recognize existence of a state but not formally recognize the government Sovereignty: • Sovereignty means that no state is making authoritative decisions for that state -either for its domestic politics or its foreign policies • This is a relative condition • Internal & external dimensions of sovereignty • Alegal concept that in practice has limitations Ideology: Areasonably consistent system of political beliefs that inspires to explain the world, to justify certain power relationships, and to maintain or transform certain institutions Alens through which one views the world • It explains the key problems facing a society and to interpret key events • It mobilizes human efforts behind a cause, such as the environment or freedom from government regulati
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