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lecture #3 Ch 14- Personality.docx

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PSYC 102
Catherine Wilson

Personality “Grand Theories” –Psychodynamic perspective - The focus is on the unconscious experiences Freud’s pshycoanalytic theory - Sigmund Freud Background - (1856-1939) - Conversion hysteria—didn’t seem like there was any physical cause to this symptom, - Joseph Breuer –Another physician Freud worked with o Freud and Breuer tried hypnotic trances - Anna O –occasional speech disorders. o She had nervous coughs that were due to dealing with her sick father o She would cough uncontrollably after listening to dance music because she would rather be there than by her father’s bed side - Psychoanalytic theory attempted to explain personality by focussing on unconscious determinants of behaviour Structure of personality - Freud believed there were 3 distinct subcategories of personality o Id—source of psychic energy  Most primitive portion of personality  Sources of other structures  Operates on pleasure principle  Primary process thinking  Ex. is a baby, functioning all on biological urges o Ego  Ego is derived from Id  Deals with the demands of reality  Operates on reality principle  Secondary process thinking—related to problem solving and rational thinking  Able to reason and problem solve—related to o Superego  Oral branch of personality  Known as the executive branch Levels of awareness - Conscious o Consists of all the thoughts that presently occupy the mind o Whatever one’s aware of at any given moment - Preconscious o Material just beneath level of awareness that can be readily retrieved o Eg. Mother’s maiden name - Unconscious o Memories & desires well beneath conscious awareness but yet may still influence behaviour o Sometimes cannot be aware of to prevent anxiety, overwhelming feelings of guilt etc o Freudian slip - Id of the personality is strictly at the unconscious level Conflict - Conflict=Id Ego + Superego - Freud concentrated on 2 types of conflict o Id getting out of control  negative consequences o Superego getting out of control  sense of guilt - Unresolved conflict anxiety o When anxiety is unresolved, we resort to defense mechanisms Defense mechanisms - these defense mechanisms are only temporary reliefs but do not solve the underlying problem - largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as guilt/anxiety o repression –blocking memories from conscious awareness o displacement—anger of feelings taken out on other people  ex. angry at your boss, then you go home and yell at your mom, or brother etc o reaction formation—complete block an impulse  repressed desire is replaced with the opposite behaviour  reactionor desire that is too painful we turn it to the opposite to feel less threatened o rationalization—make up a logical explanation to ignore the feeling  for ex, if you couldn’t reach the grapes, you say, they probably would’ve been sour anyways o projection—projecting a characteristic on to someone  negative characteristic –you accuse the person Psycholosexual stages of development - “Child is the father of man”—way these situations are handled lead to developed characteristics in life - Fixation o Failure to move from one stage to another - Oral Stage o Birth to 1 year (up to 2 years) o oral receptive personality –developed by continuing to seek pleasures from the mouth, such as smoking, eating too much o oral aggressive personality –develops verbally hostile behaviour - Anal Stage o 1-3 years o Toilet training is the key task at this stage o Anal retentive personality o Anal expulsive personality—person becomes cruel, pushy, messy and disorderly - Phallic Stage o 3-6 year o Most of this occurred at an unconscious level o Unconscious conflict  Oedipus complex (for males)  All males have the desire to kill their father and possess their mother  Castration anxiety—repress desires of what is listed above  Electra complex (for females)  Penis envy - Latency Stage o 6-11 years other o Sexual interests are dormant o Redirected to other activities such as school and sports etc - Genital stage o 11 years on o Renewed interest in sexual and romantic interests o Opposite sex peers becomes the focus Critique of Freud Positive side - Suggests importance of unconscious - Focus on developmental aspects of personality - Scope of his theory is quite broad Negative side - Hard to assess empirically - Over emphasis Carl Jung- Analytical psychology - Personal unconscious –based on life experiences - Collective unconscious –store of latent memory traces inherited from ancestral past - Archetypes—emotionally charged images and thoughts with universal meaning Alfred Adler—individual psychology - Focuses on the uniqueness of each person - Inferiority –feeling inferior always present the motivating core of behaviour - Humans strive for superiority o Defined as the universal drive to adapt, improve oneself and master life challenges - Compensation o Effort to overcome real or imagined inferiority - Inferiority complex o Argued that the feelings of inferiority becomes exaggerated o Could be due to parental neglect and develop an inferiority complex - Overcompensation o Hiding feelings of inferiority o Results in the individual striving for
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