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PSYCH 102- psychological disorders .doc

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PSYC 102
Catherine Wilson

Ch 16: Psychological Disorders October-09-12 3:07 PM History of "Madness" • Clear evidence that mental disorders/illnesses have existed for many years that is seen through Greek mythology • Demonic possession--attributed by outside the body o The cure of this was to drive the evil forces out o Different ways to cure this demonic possession: • trephined skulls --Cutting of the skulls to release the evil spirits • Exorcisms • Witch Hunts/ Trials --prevalent in Europe where accused witches were killed Insanity as a disease • Hippocrates argued that people were not possessed but had a disease in the brain Reform to Asylums "Moral treatment" • Pinel transformed people who were previously prisoners to patients and did not allow them to be beaten or treated poorly o He made sure the patients were fed and given a nice room with windows etc… Reform in the U.S • Benjamin rush --embraced the moral treatment but also used primitive techniques o Techniques such as the restraint chair and "The Crib" Eastern State Hospital • Supervised by the physician Dr. John Galt • 3 revolutions of psychology o 2nd --taught that the mentally ill differed • Used calming medications, sparingly used restraint techniques o 3rd--moving people in to the community and getting community care rather than being stuck in the hospital • Deinstitutionalization--built community facilities and once one bed was built then a patient was transferred to the smaller community facility Causes of Mental Disorders • Somatogenic hypothesis--that illness was related to a biological cause o Only able to identify specific causes to mental disorders Psychogenic Perspective • Abnormal behaviours due to some sort of psychological factor (i.e. caused by fear, heart break etc..) • Psychoanalytic perspective • Extreme use of defence mechanisms that result in maladaptive behaviour • Behavioural perspective o Maladaptive learning • Cognitive perspective--abnormal ways of thinking about themselves which causes depression Vulnerability Stress model • This model assumes that the onset of disorders and the social stressors that result in the abnormal behaviour • A person can still develop a mental illness due to a predisposition and depends on their life situations Defining Abnormal behaviour • The 3 D`s: o Deviance--mental disorder sensed to exist o Dysfunction(maladaptive behaviour)--inability to reach goals or interferes with daily functioning or impairment of functioning o Distress--If the person is distressed, they will have difficulty in performing specific roles • Also a cultural aspect to mental disorders Classifying mental disorders • Problems with the DSM: o Loss of information and cultural factors may not be taken into account Legal Consequences • Competency(also known as fitness--whether someone is fit to go to court) • Insanity o In Canada it is called Not criminally responsible Medical Disorder (NCRMD) Types of Disorders --Axis I Disorders • Axis 1 are the major clinical disorders--causes more distress to the individual and usually limited to one area of functioning Anxiety Disorders • Females experience these symptoms more often • Generalized anxiety disorder o Chronic (there for 6 months or more) unrealistic excessive anxiety --Also referred to as free flowing anxiety o Individual is usually tense, has insomnia • Phobic Disorder o Social phobia--persistent fear linked to other people (public speaking) o Closter phobia o Important point is the fear must be irrational • Panic Disorder o Sudden attacks that come and go o Panic attack once a week or more, also have panic attacks during sleep o They often develop secondary fears (i.e. fear of having a panic attack out in the public so they don`t go out much) • Obsessive compulsive disorder o Made up of 2 parts: obsessions and compulsions (doing a certain behaviour over and over again) o these obsessions can be reoccurring thoughts that enter the person's mind against their own will o Compulsions--acts that are constantly done to reduce and control the anxiety that they feel • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder o Examples of PTSD can be shellshock, reoccurring nightmares o They often experience guilt (e.g. when someone is guilt but they survive, they become very guilty) Etiology of Anxiety Disorders • Suggests that some people are programmed to over react to certain situations 2.Conditioning • 2 process model o Classical conditioning and operant conditioning (e.g. a girl has had a traumatic situation associated with snow and is scared of snow therefore she avoids going out in the snow) • Cognitive Factors • People that were more anxious developed that the sentences were interpreted in a more threatening manner • They have this predisposition to interpret things in a threatening style Mood (Affective) Disorders • Symptoms that co-occur such as insomnia, loss of appetite • Unipolar mood disorder: notice that women most likely to experience this rather than men • Bipolar mood disorder a.k.a manic depressive o Extreme emotions at both ends of the spectrum o Episodes of euphoria--staying up hours and hours on end o Much less common than unipolar. Mostly seen in the onset of 24-31 years of age Etiology of Mood disorders • Genetic vulnerability • Neurochemical aspects • Norepinephrine • Serotonin • Cognitive factors • Depressive cognitive triad: people have negative thoughts about themselves("I'm not good at school), the world(I hate this campus) and the future (I'm not going to do well in the future) • People with depression take responsibility for failures and negative events. Don’t take credit for their success • Learned-helplessness • Attributional pattern--when people expect that bad events will occur and that there is no way to cope with them • Interpersonal Factors • Depression is triggered by some sort of event • Withdraw from hobbies that they like • When they are around others, they make others feel depressed as well • Precipitating stress • Suggested that this stress is the trigger of an episode Schizophrenic Disorders • Literal term is meant to represent "split mind" • Onset is usually between 15 and 40 Schizophrenic Disorders Symptoms • Disturbance of thought • Loose associations • Neologisms--invented words that only have meaning to the person that is using them • "clang"--a rhyme used with statements • Disturbances of attention • They seem to be less able to filter out extraneous sensations • Seem to see or hear more than one specific stimuli. They get distracted by all the stimuli going on around them • Disturbances of perception • Types of hallucinations • Auditory--voices that people hear --> these voices can be critical, positive • Tactile • Somatic--feels that something is happening in or through the body • Visual--vague perceptions to distinct impressions of people or scenes • Gustatory--find that their food or beverages taste strange • Disturbed relationships with external world • Cannot distinguish fantasy life from the external reality • Elaborative private world: • Within these worlds they have delusions: delusions are false beliefs • Disturbances in emotion • Disturbances in motivation • Disturbances of behaviour • Catatonia--may be rocking back and forth Subtypes • Paranoid schizophrenia • Enduring hallucinations/delusions • Can occur in men age of 15-25 • Catatonic Schizophrenia • Characterized by motorized activity such as • May be hyperactive and coherent or may be immobile • Disorganized Schizophrenia • Tends to develop early • Hebephrenic Schizophrenia • Formal thought disorder • Peak incidence of 15 and 25 years • Transient hallucinations --spirits that talk to them • Superficial preoccupation with religion • Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Waste basket category, people that don’t fit into the other categories that are listed above • Alternative classification • Type I • Type II (negative symptoms) • More likely to see intellectual impairments Course(s) of Schizophrenia • Research suggest that a later onset has a better prognosis • 3 main courses • 25% respond to treatment and have complete recovery • 65% intermittent--patients who are in and out of treatment • 10% chronic--constant care and hospitalization Etiology of Schizophrenia o
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