PSYC 201W Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Psych, Tachycardia, Falsifiability

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Common Methods of Acquiring Knowledge (4 Basic Ways)
Tenacity: something is true because that's how it's always been
oPpl often dismiss knowledge not in line w/ own beliefs (prejudice)
Knowledge may be completely inaccurate
No way of acquiring new knowledge if ppl constantly dismiss contradictory info
Authority (or relying on authority): believing info from someone of authority or expertise
Could be completely wrong
Tendency to give authority to ppl who don't actually have authority (ex. Dr. Oz
or actress believes ppl shouldn't vaccinate kids and ppl believe)
A-priori method (AKA rationalism/reason):
Diff. conclusions can be made based on diff. but similar premises
Not based on empirical evidence but on logic
Science-systematic empiricism:
oObserving events in unbiased approach
oBest method
Scientific Ways of Knowing
Determinism: all events have some kind of cause (A happened because B)
o2 kinds
Strict determinism: ability to predict what will happen based on knowledge and
Statistical determinism: predicting what will possibly happen but not exactly
everything that will happen
Objectivity: ppl's abiliyt to make similar/same observations
oReplication (trying to create same results w/ same procedures)
Helps assure experiment is reliable
Data driven: scientific conclusions supported by data collected
Empiricism: learn info about world thru direct observations
oEmpirical question: answerable thru observations
Attitudes of Scientists
Accept that their conclusions always have degree of uncertainty
…thus always need to be open-minded to other ideas/explanations of findings
There may be mistakes or fallible results
Be skeptical about other's conclusions about research (ex. are conclusions supported correctly?)
oAlso used to detect fraud and misinfo.
Can Psych be Science? Yes! As long as scientific methods are employed.
Goals of Psych Research
Describe behaviour (how)
oPrecise description of behaviour and environment in which behaviour occurs
oDetails details details
Explaining behaviour (why)
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