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PSYC 250
Tanya Broesch

Ch.7: physics, Space, Biology and Number March-05-13 2:19 PM How is knowledge is constructed or acquired? • What is knowledge to a 2 year old? Acquiring knowledge through experience and how to get needs met • Epistemology: how to acquire knowledge • Most of our knowledge about physical world is what we are born with (evolutionary perspective(innate) like Rutherfords perspective) • According to rutherford, traits are innate and born with the baby • Build a baby activity o Sound of encouragement and discouragement, the sounds are universally recognized a threatening or safe situation.--> tone of voice(infant directed speech: slower, exaggerated pitch) o Basic physiological processes, breathing, eating .. Anything needed to survive o Infant attachment • What does the baby need to know about the physical world Epistemology • How we acquire knowledge • Nature : o Core knowledge is innate and we are born with it. Face/auditory processing, all these are domain specific: different capacities for different abilites. For example, face recognition is one domain and auditory is another domain specific module. • Nurture: o Not domain specific. Domain general mechanisms are what is constructed with learning experience Core Knowledge • Things in our evolutionary history that help us survive • Domain specificity: o Core knowledge theorisits believe most of our knowledge is shaped by environment ad not just born with it Different perspectives of learning core knowledge • Biased heuristics or privileged hypotheses that an animal uses when acquiring info about the world • We are faster at learning specific things Core knowledges • Carey and Spelke: • Domain for understanding faces, physics etc .. • Object permanence • Piaget assumed that infants developed object permanence at 8 months but Baillergeons VOE experiments proved that infants actually develop this earlier at 3.5 months • Why do we do these habituation experiments ? What do these experiments tell us ? o It tells us that they have the ability to discriminate between two images o Do they actually hold rich representations in their mind? • Contact and causality: o Infants expect: inanimate objects require contact to start moving o Infants looked long in no contact position. They understand that objects cannot go through each other (solidity). o With the unsupported object to fall. At 3 months, infant understands that objects will fall. Baillergeon argue that babies demonstrate this very early based on minimal experience o After 5 months of age, they know that things need to be supported • Infant have an expectation of certain kinds of events o Oclusion events • By 5 months of age they show knowledge of oclusion events o Containment events • Not until 7months that babies are able to do this o Covering events • How do you find your way around? o Landmarks, kms/distances, buildings, sense of direction (N,E,S,W), • How do we understand space> o 2 strategies to encode spatial information: o Location with respect to self "egocentric strategy" o Location with respect to other landmarks •
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