Class Notes (836,584)
Canada (509,860)
Psychology (1,556)
PSYC 308 (17)

Week 10 – Behaviourism and Neo-Behaviourism.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 308
Kathleen Slaney

Week 10 – Behaviourism and Neo-Behaviourism Chapter 8 Final Exam (30%) due one week after last lecture (Tuesday April 15, 12pm) Format similar to midterm (a few short answer and an essay) Emphasis on latter half of course Connection between consciousness and mental stuff  behaviour (functionalism) There was a shift Early applications of functionalist ideas (Darwinian framework) Subject matter of psychoanalysis (unconscious vs. conscious psychiatry and medical model; separate “going on”) Funcitonal aspects of consciousness in relation to behaviour and then behaviour replacing consciousness altogether in psychology. Russian Behaviourism objective psychology: an approach which limits scientific psychology to the study of only those phenomena that can be directly measured and which employs strictly “objective” (i.e., physiological) methods Key Figures: Ivan Sechenov, Ivan Pavlov, and Vladimir Bechterev Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Born to religious family (father wanted to become priest) Read Darwin’s work and was transformed  science Professor of physiology at St. Petersburg’s Military Academy Published very little Dedicated to his lab work -Pursued a longstanding interest in workings of digestive system; to more accurately study, working with dogs, noticed that when assistant would go to feed dogs, dogs would start to salivate once the assistant left the room (knew they were getting fed) -operated on living animals in which a gastric fistula (channel leading from the digestive organs to the outside of the body; diversion of gastric juices) is inserted so that digestive processes could be studied -discovered conditioned reflex (learned reflex, comes about from experience) i.e., a particular learned response to a particular stimulus distinguished conditional reflexes from unconditioned reflexes – innate (i.e., unlearned) responses to particular stimuli, e.g., salivation at the sight of food -unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits an innate, automatic response -unconditioned response (UR): an innate response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus that is naturally associated with it (i.e., salivation) -conditioned stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that through experience comes to elicit a certain response (i.e., ringing of the bell), namely the conditioned response conditioned response (CR): a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus, e.g., salivation Pavlov: ONTO and EPIS Empiricist, Universalistic, Deterministic, Objectivist - activity of the nervous system characterized in terms of two fundamental processes: excitation and inhibition excitation: brain activity that leads to an overt behaviour of some sort in a reflexive manner, e.g., the brain processes involved in saliva production inhibition: the reduction or cessation of the brain activity that is caused by stimulation which occurs when an organism learns through experience to inhibit a particular response to a particular stimulus, e.g., inhibition of salivation a the sound of a bell once it is apparent that no food will accompany it cortical mosaic: the pattern of excitation and inhibition that characterizes the brain at any given time, and which determines in a given setting how the organism responds to its environment (biological determinism, materialism) what is observable is a direct result of the inhibition and excitation Pavlov’s View of Psychology -was very critical of introspective methods, and subjective accounts of experience (rejected introspection) -believed that such subjective experience must be studied objectively via physiological methods (need to link subjective experiences to objectivity) -generally had a low opinion of psychologists, but did have a healthy respect for Thorndike, in particular as regards his animal studies (connection between brain and animal behaviour) Vladimir Bechterev (1857-1927) ­ also Russian (just in case the name didn’t give it away!) ­ argued for a completely objective psychology ­ unlike Pavlov, however, concentrated on the relationship between environmental stimulation and behaviour ­ reflexology: the strictly objective study of human behaviour that seeks to understand the relationship between environmental influences and overt behaviour ­ also studied the conditioned reflex (Pavlov), but called it the association reflex ­ studied motor reflexes (instead of secretions), in particular those of the extremities (legs, feet, arms, hands) and of respiration ­ despite studying the association reflex at the same time as Pavlov, Bechterev was not, until recently, acknowledged for his contributions on at the international level (pair shock with signal before shock – unconditioned response  association reflex) Pavlov discovered by John Watson (wasn’t familiar with Bechterev) Similar (objectivist tradition); key point: Pavlov and Bechnerer: (8:59am) Science of psychology for them is a psychology based in objective observables, reductionism North American Behaviourism ­ born in South Carolina; unstable home; got into trouble as a youth; managed to straighten himself out and pursue an education in psychology ­ Masters, school teacher; attended the University of Chicago, where he worked with Dewey, Angell, and Loeb (who studied tropisms, automatic orienting responses in plants and animals which are elicited by particular stimuli, e.g., tendency for a plant to orient toward the sun; presenting leaves to maximal sun exposure) ­ Reputation in animal psychology; eventually hired at John’s Hopkins, where a major faux pas on the part of then chair of the department of psychology, James Mark Baldwin, would change Watson’s fate (famous developmental theoriest, chair of philosophy/psychology education department; he was caught in a brothel, lost job  provided opportunity for Watson who was gaining respect as a formidable figure to take over Psychology Review) ­ became editor of Psychology Review, in which he would publish his initial ideas regarding behaviourism (what should be science of psychology) ­ had an affair with Rosalie Rayner, a graduate student, and forced to resign from Johns Hopkins; Psycholgoy as a behaviourist views it  paper  foundation of behaviourism ­ would work in advertising from that point on ­ Comparative Psychology goes back to Romanes (Darwin..) but hasn’t taken a huge hold in psychology yet…focus on consciousness Watson’s Psychology ­ completely rejected mentalism, which views the mental (as opposed to the physical or strictly observable) basis of human behaviour to be the proper subject matter of psychology ­ advocated radical environmentalism, the belief that most, if not all, human behaviour is caused by environmental experience (radical empiricism) ­ believed in four types of behaviour: ­ explicit (overt) learned, e.g., talking, writing, playing baseball; ­ implicit (covert) learned, e.g., increased heart rate at the sight of a gun; ­ explicit unlearned behaviour, e.g., blinking, sneezing; (behaviour) ­ implicit unlearned behaviour, e.g., glandular secretions and circulatory changes (physiological resposnes, little/no control) ­ Watson’s use of behaviour was fairly broad (minor move of larynx was considered behaviour) ­ Proposed four methods of study: ­ 1. observation, i.e., either naturalistic of experimentally controlled; ­ 2. conditioned-reflex method, i.e., similar to that of Pavlov ­ 3. testing, i.e., taking of behaviour samples, i.e., measuring responses to the stimulus situation of taking the test (not the measurement of "capacity" or "personality"); ­ 4. verbal reports, i.e., any other type of overt behaviour (not subjective reports of one's conscious experience) ­ naturalistic observation but systematic documenting of behaviour Watson’s Conditioning ­ elaborated a psychology based on the notion of stimulus-response ­ held his own conceptions of the terms stimulus, response, and of the learning process ­ stimulus: either a general environmental situation or some internal condition of the organism (broad definition of behaviour) ­ response: anything the organism did, from turning toward a light to building a skyscraper Watson’s Theory of Habits - identified three kinds of habits: 1. emotional (or visceral) habits—each emotion has a characteristic patter of visceral and glandular responses that is triggered by an appropriate stimulus; famous study with “Little Albert” 2. manual habits--form through the repetition of particular responses - believed in non-learning time between trial to acquire manual habits 3. verbal (laryngeal) habits—thought is produced by the minute movements of the tongue and larynx -speech (voiced/in heads) was another type of behaviour that is objective (no different, just not as easy to observe in motor action)  thoughts not a form of introspection - saw conscioiesness and behaviour along the same line - everything is reducable to behaviour (thinking, tiny movments in tongue and larynx) - thought only way to study was in young children as older people learn to hold emotions and younger are more reactive/automatic - Watson/Reiner  experiment: Initial exposure to white rat, didn’t have a fear; after reached out for rat, Watons would bang hammer on a steel bar; repeated every time he reached for rat; also used other animals; pairing of noise with rat  fear and fear became generalized to other similar objects/animals - advocated for scientific psychology in observable behaviours - empiricist, positivist (all scienece founded in behabiour), determinist, realist/objectivist Karl Lashley (1890-1958) ­ studied cortical lateralization of function, which involves investigating where particular psychological functions are located in the nervous system ­ Employed the technique of ablation, in which parts of the cerebral cortex are destroyed and the effects on the functioning of the organism observed ­ (materialism/biological determinism) On the basis on his localization of function, formulated two major laws: 1. The law of mass action: the loss of ability following destruction of parts of the cortex depend more on the amount of destruction than on the location of the destruction, i.e., learning and memory depend on the total mass of brain tissue remaining; 2. The law of equipotentiality: any part of a functional area of the brain can perform the function associated with than area, and so, to destroy a particular brain function the entire brain area associated with that function would need to be destroyed (hints at plasticity) The Search for the Engram Engram (theoreritcal term): the supposed neurophysiological locus of memory and learning; a theoretical term that has been used to denote the hypothetical means by which memories are stored as physical or biochemical changes in the brain ­ Lashley searched for decades for some physical proof of the engram, but was not successful; still no sense of engram is, but hold hope to find neurophysiological basis of memory ­ Lashley’s work perhaps better characterized as psychobiology (split off into two different paths), which attempts to explain psychological phenomena in terms of their associated biological functions Neobehaviourism neobehaviourism: the offspring of behaviourism and logical positivism (attempted to asses validity of propositions and translated them into symbolis calculus); like beha
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 308

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.