PSYC 325 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Radial Arm Maze, Temporal Lobe, Semantic Memory

63 views5 pages
Declarative Memory
Ebbinghaus
1. Conducted distinctly modern and scientific research
a. Empirical, Experimental, , Quantitative
2. Studied his own ability to learn and recall lists of nonsense words
a. IV: time delay (hours)
b. DV: savings (repetitions needed to relearn a list perfectly)
3. The forgetting curve
a. The length of delay predict the saving
a.i. Initially rapid memory decay, with some long term preservation
a.ii. 1 month later still rmb 20%
b. Impacted by
b.i. Time
b.ii. Practice
b.iii. Spacing: h: how much info was cram into one practice session
4. Contribution to modern research methods
5. Definitive, predictive explanation of LTM
Henry Molaison
1. Bilateral medial temporal lobectomy for severe epilepsy
a. Anterograde amnesia: cannot form new memory
b. Absences of retrograde amnesia: short-term/ working memory and skill acquisition deficits
2. Living proof that ability to form declarative memory depends on medial temporal lobes
3. Definitive evidence that memory is a system of different brain functions
a. Difference between WM and LTM
b. Cannot transform WM to LT declarative memory, only to LT nondeclarative memory
1. Declarative Memory: a broader term that reflect the act that it is easy to verbalize/ communicate
your knowledge
2. Nondeclarative memory: not easy to communicate, e.g. skill memory
3. Explicit memory: episodic and semantic info is consciously accessible/ explicit by comparison
4. Implicit memory: memory that you may not be aware you’ve acquired
Episodic Memory
1. A memory for a specific autobiographical event
2. Spatial/ temporal specificity: tagged with spatial and temporal context
3. Learned in a single exposure
a. can be weakened by exposure to similar events
Semantic Memory
1. Memories for facts and general knowledge about the world and personal information
2. Spatial/ temporal specificity: not tagged in time and space
3. Can be learned in a single exposure
a. Can be strengthened by repetition
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Features of Both Memories
1. Easy to communicate
a. Can be communicated flexibly, in different formats than the one in which they were
originally acquired
2. Consciously available
a. Metamemory: o: our knowledge of, and ability to think about, our own memories
Relationships between Episodic and Semantic Memory
1. Episodic memory grows out of semantic memory
a. Endel Tulving
b. An organism has to have a certain amount of semantic information before episodic
memories can be built on that framework
2. Semantic memory represent over exposed episodic memories
a. Conway
b. Semantic memory is information we have encountered repeatedly that the actual learning
episodes are blurred and only the semantic fact content remains
3. Interdependent
a. Each can affect the other
b. Episodic memories will be formed more strongly and last longer when rich background of
semantic info to help us recognize and encode aspects of the event
c. Semantic memories will be formed more strongly and last longer when we have a distinct
episodic memory of the context in which we encountered the info
d. Many of our memories include both episodic and semantic content
Nonhuman and Declarative Memory
1. Semantic memory
a. Test animals ability to flexibly employ factual declarative info, i.e. verbalize knowledge, is
difficult
a.i. Use learning situation
a.ii. If b change, infer
b. Radial arm maze
b.i. Test semantic memory by examining b
b.ii. End arm: food
b.iii. Starting arm: where the researcher put the rat
b.iv. Rat get faster at finding the food when repeatedly starting at arm 1
b.iv.1. Explanation
b.iv.1.a. Rat learn physical action
b.iv.1.b. Rat learn spacial location of food
b.v. Rat get faster at finding the food when starting at arm 2
b.v.1. Learn spatial location and able to use info flexibly
2. Episodic memory
a. Harder to assess in animals
b. Tulving: No, it requires subjective sense of time and self awareness
c. Animals show self awareness,
c.i. e.g. rouge-test, selfies: make a mark on animal’s face, see how animal respond
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.