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Attention 7 - Orienting Attention in Space.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 330
Richard Wright

7 - Orienting Attention in Space March-05-13 8:30 AM • So GoodThey Can't IgnoreYou (Cal Newport) -- most success when people get jobs they weren't sure about and later gainedthe skillsin • Previouslywe talked about filter metaphor (picking out what to attend to) & resource metaphor (practice effect) • Spotlight metaphor ○ Moving the attention ○ Find a way to keep eyes from moving whileshifting attention (independent of eyes) ○ e.g.,basketball playerskeep eyes on opposing players, but checking out your own surrounding ○ e.g.,watch the road whiledriving in residential neighbourhood, but keeping an eye out for kid running into the road I. What iscovert orienting • That is, it's not obvious [what] you're attending to it ○ As opposed to overt orienting (turning body, head, eyestowards attended stimuli) ○ Tis why behaviourist don't study this! It's hard to study from observation! → Wasn't studied until 1970's • Why not just moveour eyes? ○ It might not be worth moving your eyes. It's timeconsuming (can only do like4/second) ○ We can use covert attention much faster than moving eyes back and forth  e.g.,looking at road, but attention focal point on cyclist ○ When we move our eyes, vision istemporarily suspended (more on this next week)  So don't moveyour eyestoo much whileyou're driving... • Find a way to study movementof attention independent of eye position • Helmholtz ○ Studied attention orienting in 1800's ○ Before givinga lecture, he'd run a demonstration of a phenomenon on himselfwith a contraption he made (he was REALLY good at that)  Built a box with dark inside, with mirrorsinside, lightinga spark insideit→ for stimulating vision(tekistiscope)  You can show a word or something in the box; something we used before computers  P would look in and see the visiblepin hole (put a word or something); because it's dark P would look at it  Looking at the middle, but shift attention to the side -> would be able to read the letters where the spotlight is, better than where our eyeswere ○ → ocular and attentional focal points ○ First to suggest that it can be studied  "the most important work on attention in the 1800's"  Even though study on attention was halted, people used this concept againwhen study on attention restarted  Only now we can use computers too instead II. Studying covert orienting with location cueing • Useof cues goesway back, even before attention research • Auditory location cueing ○ Different tone (high, med, low pitch) = different location to attend to (top, middle, bottom) Studying iconic memory ○ Studying iconic memory ○ Cue comes after stimulus • Visual location cueing ○ Cue comes after stimulus & studying iconic memory ○ Rows of letters, and ask them "what was presented here" • Posner ○ Developed a location cueing task, specificallyfor covert orienting  Simpleenough that children & animalscan do it too  Widelyused → Posner Task ○ Start with fixation point (P told to keep eyeson the cross all the time); then... ○ Direct cueing: the horizontal line  1000ms later, horizontal line comes up (location cue onset) in peripheral; 100ms, a blue circle (target onset) comes up on the line;Goal: click button when they see target (record response)  Accurate cues (validcue) help people react faster  Validcue: target appears on line  Invalidcue: target doesn't appear on line ○ Indirect cueing: arrow  Instead of horizontal line, the fixation point becomes an arrow that points left/right  With valid/invalidcue trials  Alsohas neutral (arrow points both ways: ↔) □ Kind of only givesthe cue of onset but not direction  A form of symboliccueing □ e.g.,gaze cueing □ When we're babies, we're alwayslooking at parents' eyesto figure out what is interesting □ Indirect cueing (but with eyesinstead of the arrow) ○ Experiment reliablyworks, with linear/robustresults (RESEARCHERS LOVE THAT PATTERN) Cueing condition Response time Valid ~245ms (benefit) Neutral ~270ms Invalid ~300ms (cost)  Significantdifference, YO  Caught on, also b/c of the spot light metaphor ○ [image]Validcue trials  The bottom surface is the computer screen  The top surface is our attentive level  Start with focusing on fixation point. When the cue is presented to the right, our attentional focal point shifts to where the cue is. When the target appears, focal point is alreadythere, ergo faster reaction time. ○ Vs. invalidcue trial: in which the target appears on the left side. The attentional focal point is on the right, so it takes it some time to shift to where the target is, ergo slowerreaction time. ○ First attempt to use spotlight metaphor to study covert attention • [History on the metaphor] Alcmaeon 450 BCE: Lamp light theory of vision ○ A philosopher; was whacked in the head and saw spots of light ○ Insightthat the way we see is b/c we have fire/lightin our head so that it illuminateswhat we see ○ This idea persisted through the ages … until it was awkwardlydebunked (when they tried to test it in its literal meaning) test it in its literal meaning) ○ BUT it gave riseto the spotlight metaphor of attention • Spotlight Metaphor ○ It's easy to understand ○ Fuelleda lot of research b/c it was easy to understand (similarto Broadbent's filter metaphor) ○ → people started thinking of QS to research (e.g.,how fast does it move) III. Voluntary and reflexiveattention shifts • Reflexive:our attention can move inspace without our intention to do so (e.g.,sudden loud noise) ○ Vs. voluntarilymoving the spotlight out of our own free willto sense something • Stimulusdriven attention shift: attention iscaptured by [peripheral]stimulus ○ e.g.,light flashing on the side ○ Vs. goal-driven(intentional, voluntary) • Symboliccues tend to fall under voluntary realm • Direct cues tend to fall under reflexiverealm • [Experiment] (1) cueing task, (2) cueing task + memorytask Direct cues same benefit of cueing in (1) and (2) Symboliccues Similarresultsfor (1) Benefit of cueing drops in (2) ○ Symbolicmay require cognition (b/c it's impairedwhen resources are dispersed elsewhere) • [Experiment] delaybetween cue onset and target onset ○ CTOA: Cue Target Onset Asynchronicity Direct cues Benefit when delayis small (0-150ms) - peaks at 100ms, and drops off thereafter Symboliccues Benefit when delayis long (300-400ms) - graduallyincreases • [Experiment] symboliccues affected by cue validity Highcue validity Low cue validity (95% accuracy) (5% accuracy) Direct cue Fast reaction Fast reaction Symboliccue Fast reaction Slow reaction
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