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Attention - Nov. 14

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PSYC 330
Richard Wright

Attention across the lifespan Nov.14/2013 Lecture overview - “last -in/ first- out principle” only for first 3 of this class. Little kids are good at doing certain types of tasks, 5yr olds are always gna lose at video games against 10yrs olds. - physiology of the developing brains - studying attention in infants - development and decline of attention LAST-IN/FIRST-OUT Plate stacker.. last plate put on the stacker, first one to be taken off. Development of cortical neurons – difference between babies cortical layers and their interconnectivity.  the wiring between infants and adults in cortical layering is very DIFFERENT. Visual acuity – one month year olds cant see very clearly, but 2 month year olds they can differentiate between family members. Sticky fixation in one month olds.  its hard for 1 mo. To look away from a specific figure (checkered board) .. attentional disengagement similar.. difficult to disengage attention and fixation. Infant selective looking experiment. – two figures, looking through the peephole to watch the babies eyes to see between what the baby is looking at, left pattern or right pattern. fMRI is safe for kids, so they can do that.. but usually hard to study attention in kids, cause they don’t have the patience for this shit.. so you have to get CREATIVE. - at what age does cognitive decline begin. There is no ONE date.. depends of genetics, or ppl that don’t take care of themselves as much, show decline earlier in life. If you take good care of your heart, your brain health will be good too. - Depends on how much you use your brain, we cant get around the loss of neurons, its inevitable. Were going to lose brain mass, neurons WILL die.. not much we can do, but if we are mentally active we can make up for loss of neurons by increasing synaptic connections.  increasing myelin. AS you do things intensely, it increases processes in synapses. Age 55 is a good bday to buy a parent something that’s cognitively stimulating. Get that brain going. - 20 yo. Is peak in neurons, but they decline with age Auditory filtering: attended and unattended messages.  the half filled circle, they are not as good, and the filled circle means they are good. Visual filtering: same results, for kids at 10 and 20 are better Stroop effect – CAVEAT: 5 year old cant read very well. The young group is more like 7 year olds, you’re not going to get a stroop effect for people who cant read. Negative priming: 5 year olds and old people have LESS negative priming, maybe 5 yo’s and elderly aren’t very good at either filtering out or they are paying attention to the trumpet, they were probably sort of looking at it. Visual search (serial attentive): this shows the same results Attention shift: same results. Visual search (preattentive): the elderly and kids are just as good. Attention shift (reflexive stimulus-driven): the elderly and kids are just as good Inhibition of return: the elderly and kids are just as good (take away the “?” in chapter notes cause Richard didn’t know if there was evidence to back this up, but there is) All these ^ type of tasks that take 10 years to get good at. But there are some that we are good at anyways, like the pop out one (where something stands out and pops out) IOR in infants: when targets are presented 10degrees away from the center, 3 mo. And 6 mo. Show IOR, but for the ones that are 30degree (thumb width) 3mo. Don’t have IOR, they make series of short saccades called hypo metric saccades. Stimulus driven (perceptual) attentional processes are the first to fully develop and the last to deteriorate The goal drive (cognitive) attentional processes are the last to fully develop and the first to deteriorate Part 1 – overview of brain structure Part 2- subcortical attentional processing Part 3- cortical attentional processing Part 4- attentional networks PART 1 The two hemispheres are almost like two separate brains, they communicate through the corpus collosum fibers. Reticular activating system (RAS): this is involved in arousal. Superior Colliculus: Subcortical area, main brain area for
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