Attention across the lifespan Nov.14/2013
- “last -in/ first- out principle” only for first 3 of this class.
Little kids are good at doing certain types of tasks, 5yr olds are always gna lose at
video games against 10yrs olds.
- physiology of the developing brains
- studying attention in infants
- development and decline of attention
Plate stacker.. last plate put on the stacker, first one to be taken off.
Development of cortical neurons – difference between babies cortical layers and
their interconnectivity. the wiring between infants and adults in cortical layering
is very DIFFERENT.
Visual acuity – one month year olds cant see very clearly, but 2 month year olds they
can differentiate between family members.
Sticky fixation in one month olds. its hard for 1 mo. To look away from a specific
figure (checkered board) .. attentional disengagement similar.. difficult to disengage
attention and fixation.
Infant selective looking experiment. – two figures, looking through the peephole to
watch the babies eyes to see between what the baby is looking at, left pattern or
fMRI is safe for kids, so they can do that.. but usually hard to study attention in kids,
cause they don’t have the patience for this shit.. so you have to get CREATIVE.
- at what age does cognitive decline begin. There is no ONE date.. depends of
genetics, or ppl that don’t take care of themselves as much, show decline
earlier in life. If you take good care of your heart, your brain health will be
- Depends on how much you use your brain, we cant get around the loss of
neurons, its inevitable. Were going to lose brain mass, neurons WILL die.. not
much we can do, but if we are mentally active we can make up for loss of
neurons by increasing synaptic connections. increasing myelin. AS you do
things intensely, it increases processes in synapses. Age 55 is a good bday to
buy a parent something that’s cognitively stimulating. Get that brain going.
- 20 yo. Is peak in neurons, but they decline with age
Auditory filtering: attended and unattended messages. the half filled circle, they
are not as good, and the filled circle means they are good.
Visual filtering: same results, for kids at 10 and 20 are better
Stroop effect – CAVEAT: 5 year old cant read very well. The young group is more
like 7 year olds, you’re not going to get a stroop effect for people who cant read.
Negative priming: 5 year olds and old people have LESS negative priming, maybe 5
yo’s and elderly aren’t very good at either filtering out or they are paying attention
to the trumpet, they were probably sort of looking at it. Visual search (serial attentive): this shows the same results
Attention shift: same results.
Visual search (preattentive): the elderly and kids are just as good.
Attention shift (reflexive stimulus-driven): the elderly and kids are just as good
Inhibition of return: the elderly and kids are just as good (take away the “?” in
chapter notes cause Richard didn’t know if there was evidence to back this up, but
All these ^ type of tasks that take 10 years to get good at. But there are some that we
are good at anyways, like the pop out one (where something stands out and pops
IOR in infants: when targets are presented 10degrees away from the center, 3 mo.
And 6 mo. Show IOR, but for the ones that are 30degree (thumb width) 3mo. Don’t
have IOR, they make series of short saccades called hypo metric saccades.
Stimulus driven (perceptual) attentional processes are the first to fully develop and
the last to deteriorate
The goal drive (cognitive) attentional processes are the last to fully develop and the
first to deteriorate
Part 1 – overview of brain structure
Part 2- subcortical attentional processing
Part 3- cortical attentional processing
Part 4- attentional networks
The two hemispheres are almost like two separate brains, they communicate
through the corpus collosum fibers.
Reticular activating system (RAS): this is involved in arousal.
Superior Colliculus: Subcortical area, main brain area for