What is thinking?
How is it possible for human?
Human with agriculture is similar to ant with agriculture
The difference between ants and us are our communication
1) Individualistic (split), also referred to as dualist, cognitivist, Biological vs.
social constructed. Interaction between preexisting entities that interact
Used to be dominate, one direction
Mind is given, how to figure out other minds
▯ 2) Relational: start from relations (systems), ! nn also referred to as: enactivism,
interactivism, embodied cognition, situated cognition, relational constructivism,
developmental system theory, process approaches. !
Doesn’t take it as given.. Explains how mind develops= from a social process
e.g. Baby does not exist by itself, but it exist as a system. (Describe care giver relations)
Their biological characteristic affects the social system the baby is in. What the baby is
capable of doing can change the system. Where does bio and social start.. they are
intertwined BIO CREATES SOCIAL ENVIRO. Babies presences and abilities change
environment they are interacting in. Bidirectional.
e.g. psychiatrist prescribes drugs for depress patients, which changes the biological factor
of the patients, that change how the patients operate. Epistemology: Theory of knowledge"
Children’s development of knowledge; examine assumptions about knowledge!
main approaches: Empiricism, nativism, constructivism!
• The knower passively acquires a copy of reality; reality is impressed on the mind; like
a camera, or a wax tablet.!
• Knowledge through observation!
• Knowledge is based on representations!
In the view of Empiricism, it suggests that the reality (environment) provides knowledge
that can capture by our mind.
However, empiricism face criticism such as,
How do we compare two representations
How do we know if representation is correct?
How do we detect error.
The claim that children are born with knowledge.!
Requires an account at the level of genetics and neuroscience!
Debates between nativism and empiricism as a “family feud”!
• nativism and empiricism as different versions but they share the same starting point of
a split between mind and the world.!
• It is assumed that complexity/knowledge must preexist either in the mind or the world ! Constructivism"
• Knowledge is constructed/complexity emerges!
• Knowing is successful action!
• The knower actively constructs the known world; the knower assimilates his or her
experience to structures and also accommodates.!
• Knowledge not in the organism or the environment; rather, constructed in relations!
• Knowledge through organization of activity, the potential for interaction (Piaget,
E.g. learn how the world work, and work in that system
Assimilate his or her experience to structures and accommodate the system
Relationship with the world.
• E.g. how we see the world, how we sense the world
Series of activity and potential of interaction with others around us.
Computer minds metaphor describes how our mind works like a information process
Thinking is like manipulation of symbols that represent the world.
However, this metaphor runs into questions such as,
How the symbols acquire meaning to begin with?
Individualism vs. Relationism": Biology vs evolution
what we were born with vs. what the system is developing us with
Organism and environment!nn “hard wired” vs. developmental systems theory!
Interactive emergence, e.g., ecological
succession! Mind ! The problem of other minds! Language!
Organism and environment
e.g. the biological characteristic affect the environment vs environment changing the
“Hard wired” vs development system theory
Interactive emergence – ecological succession
e.g. One Assumed other already has mind, and try to figure out what the other is thinking
Code model vs activity
Preexistent vs developed interaction
How one interact/utilize what they know
Jean Piaget ( 1886 – 1980)
He was then recovered through a theory that later mentioned in this lecture – theory of
However, Piaget was actually known by his famous theory of Genetic Epistemology.
Many people misunderstood the term “Genetic” as in the context of biology. However,
what Piaget actually meant was genesis/origin.
So the actual definition of Genetic Epistemology is the origin of knowledge
(development of knowledge), not DNA, chromosomes, etc…
Misunderstood= recived view of PIAGET
Theories of Stages Classified Stages: Sensorimotor Stage
Formal Operational Stage
These stages were to classify the form of thinking children have in different ages.
They were also used to study how one go from one stage to another.
These stages were developed through the observation of children
**Theory of Equilibration:
How one Apply Knowledge in general
The development of knowledge vs the changes in environment and stages.
Process of development is always in a continuous state
4 Factors in Development:
*Maturation (Biological Nature) Necessary but not sufficient
Biological Characteristic is necessary when one interacts with the world
But with only biological characteristic is not sufficient
Impossible to grow with only biological characteristic
Experience (“nurture”)physical (bottle study)!
Physical knowledge: !
knowledge from properties of objects; e.g., weight, colour!
Logicalmathematical knowledge: ! knowledge from actions on objects. !
*Social Experience (Nurture)
People overlook how one develop knowledge
Simply assuming others have knowledge of something
Knowledge is being constructed/interpreted
It cannot be born with
Obtain through the interaction with the world
Absorb by child
Make sense of the world with previous experience with the objects
Neither innate or copied from the world,
Knowledge is being develop through action* (eg.pick things up)
• E.g. opening your eyes, making coffee
Knowledge is neither innate nor copy from the world
Knowledge is constructed and not passively learn from observation
It is egocentric Children form world by starting from their own experience..
object impermanence Schemes
Children develop schemes (action patterns). Blueprint from previous experience
• Repeat same action when in same/similar situation (ex. Soother sucking)
Inconsistency between activities and environment.
• One’s own scheme/action pattern does not match with the environment provided
• E.g. sucking (action) fingers (object/environment) vs .sucking (action) toys
learning the new action pattern through disequilibration
Learning from disequilibration to obtain equilibration to be consistent with
better action pattern for various environment
NEW FORM OF BALANCE
2 Aspects of Adaptation
Assimilation (assimilate to different ways of thinking)
• Understand environment in terms of existing schemes
• E.g. apply previous experience/action pattern to understand current situation (sucking
fingers > sucking toy)
Accommodations differentiating action pattern.. Adjustment
• Schemes are general concept/action pattern, one will need constant adjustment to apply in
certain situation (sucking fingers > not sucking toy as one realize toy cannot be suck)
6 Substages of Sensorimotor:
Stage 1: Reflexes (01month)
• Born with basic action pattern – sucking
• Involuntary, but one will improve
• Organize of perception of the surrounding and coordinate movement
Stage 2: Primary circular reaction ( 14 months)
• Discover action by change, and repeat the movement
• These movement centered the baby’s body – sucking thumb
• Try and coordinate the schemas baby learned, and apply to objects
• Begin to look and listen (active relationship of subject “baby” and objects)
Stage 3: Secondary Circular Reaction (48 months)
• Focus on the outcome of the action
• Try to find out what they can possibly do with the objects
• Reproduce the effects of the action by chance
• No separation between means from goal
Stage 4: Secondary Schemes Coordination (812 months)
• Try to reach a certain goal with the action pattern/schemes
• Separate means from goal
• Schemes become more flexible with different situation/environment
• Try applying to already learned patterns on other objects
Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reaction (1218 months)
• Trial/Error experiment on new objects
Stage 6: Mental Combination (1824 months) • Rather trying objects/action out, think of what can possibly happen first
• Anticipate result
• Coordinate of scheme in head first before action
Children’s Construction of Reality
Organize experience and interpret the surrounding
Coperian Evolution,not center of reality
E.g. baby pulls on the floor mat when she sits on it vs baby moves out of the floor
mat then pull on it. Realizes they themselves are an object
Develop understanding of the action/object/environment
Development of Object Knowledge (Object existence)
Stage 1 & 2 (14 months)
• No special behavior to objects
• Have some idea of the objects/behavior existence
• E.g. baby looks at the direction when caretaker leaves
Stage 3 (48 months)
• Ability to find partial covered object
Stage 4 (812 months)
• Can find fully covered object
• *****Conduct “A not B” error (Object permanent)
• E.g. Baby will find object covered in A box, but when moved to a B box, baby will still
believe the object in A box even she watches you move the object.
Stage 5 ( 12 18 months) • Able to avoid “A not B” error, and find object with visible displacement
Stage 6 (1824 months)
• Able to follow invisible displacement of object
Point of Stages?
Structuralist = Believe that stages have structured characteristic.
Should not be related age, rather how baby develops from one stage of the
thinking to another.
Challenge to Piaget – Baillargeon (1987)
Baillargeon believe that Piaget underestimate infants’s ability (surprised and look
longer at impossible event)
**Challenges the age (she said 3 ½ months) and process of development (haven’t
been able to interact with objects therefore process different).
Habituated to screen draw bridge… then shown to events.. possible vs. impossible.
Baillargeon’s experiment to suggest baby has better knowledge of object
Baby was first being put in an environment with repetitive motion/sound
After certain period of time, change motion/sound (dishabituation) Baby can hear/see the difference of motion/sound as they have a surprise
look/longer look of the direction (time paradigm)
Longer look from baby indicate they are expecting something to happen (possible
event vs impossible event)
Suggest baby has object conc