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Personality L5 Anna Freud.pdf

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PSYC 370
Robert Ley

L5 Anna Freud, Heinz Hartmann, Erik Erikson February-20-13 2:32 PM Moving awayfrom Freud • Ego would be seen as doing more than just guiding→ seen as powerful & autonomous (independent), exerting its influenceon the internal/externalworld • Freud left some loose ends… ○ Why are some behaviours independent of biological drive? ○ Relationshipbetween mind/body: how does physical symptom resolvefrom biological conflict? ○ How does ego assume a greater influence and less subject to biological forces? • If Freud had kept living,he probably would've gone on to be a ego psychologist(his later work suggest a change in his theorizing) ○ Was strongly influencedby Darwin Drive/EgoPsychology anchored by Anna Freud • Last/youngest of his 6 children; treated as the baby of the family(pampered, indulged, treated as a much younger child for much of her life) • Clearlyhis favourite, felt she was the most giftedand had the most potential; idolizedher father • Trained as elementaryteacher (common career path for bright women of the time) • When ~20y/o, wanted to be a psycho-analysislikefather → Freud encouraged that (felt you didn't need a medical degreeto get into psychoanalyst) → Lay analysis (no M.D.) ○ Freud trained her himself→ He was her analyst, quite unethical in our eyesnow, but at the time, it wasn't a problem ○ Though Freud later recognized that cliniciansshouldn’t treat friends/family→ DON'T DO IT • Early 1920's, Freud got jaw/tongue cancer (super painful, he smokedA LOT), so Anna Freud become his caretaker ○ By this point Freud broke up with Jung/Adler,so he was still missinga successor → made his daughter fill that role (public speaking, travellingto meetings/conferences) • Early 1930's, Germantook over Vienna & systematicallyinterviewing/imprisoningpeople of Jewishdescent ○ They took Anna Freud away(mid 30y/o), interviewedfor 6-8hrs, then sent home. Afterwards they made plans to leaveVienna for London Anna Freud's Significant contributions to personalitytheories • Tend to focus on children/adolescence(she was a teacher) • Developmentallines -- the ways in which people from infancy until death progressalong a number of developmentallines ○ Developmental tasks needs to be resolved at stages ○ A more longitudinal POV than Freud ○ e.g.,infant progressing from nursing at mother's breast to feeding oneself more independently; liquidto solidfood; selection of food; feeding your own child ○ This probably greatlyinfluenced Erik Erikson stagetheory (later, she was an analyst for him) • Adolescence represent recreation of Oedipal complex, but in lessintensiveform than in childhood ○ Due to hormonal changes in puberty/growth spurt → become more sexuallyaroused, aggressive,etc. ○ Fragileego b/c of biologicalchanges → not sufficiently stable in psychological sense to undergo psychoanalysis • Ego Defences (defense mechanisms) ○ Portrayed the ego as a guiding/problemsolving function (not just reacting to id/superego, but quite proactive) but quite proactive) ○ Freud focused on repression & denial (all forms of defenses kind of include these 2)  Identification with loss love object: denial:denying the break up with vegetarian& repression: thinks he became a vegetarianb/c he wants to be healthy ○ Anna F. went on to developmuch more ○ Reaction formation: turn a driveinto opposite form  e.g. if you hate something, you believeyou loveit b/c you're uncomfortable with the powerful/hostilefeelingyou have about it ○ Especiallyin adolescence:  Asceticism: renouncing drives □ b/c adol ismoved by powerful aggressive/sexualdrive, the intensityof the drivescreate conflicts (becomes conflicted about it) □ e.g.,psychoanalysis of anorexia (conflicting about biologicalmaturing body; amenorrhea)  Intellectualism: remove emotional salience/significanceby rendering it in cognitive/intellectualway □ e.g.,stoic patient obsessing over detailsof mother's death (what went wrong in hospital, at the funeral)but not about the loss (anger/sadness) • Became veryinterested in child rights → children's bill of rights HeinzHartmann • "the father of ego psychology" but really,Anna kind of preceded him in someways • He had 2 significantways that he divergedfrom Freud ○ Freud said ego was formed from id → ego forms in more interpersonal way out of transaction between parent-child  Freud said everything is id (dominates in the infant)  Hartmann: both id/egoare present at birth & developindependently but interactively ○ UnlikeFreud, Hartmann believedhuman are not driven by biological instincts Erik Erikson • Great deal of attention over the last 30 years (in developmental psychology) ○ Moving awayfrom just focusing on pre-teens → moving towards ideaof lifespan development ○ e.g.,RememberSadie who had a lot of anxiety with separation/independence(going to kindergarten, psychosomatic symptoms) ○ Developmental tasks throughout lifecycle  Even elderlyhas things to cope with: retirement, dying friends, mortality, physical/mental health, familygrowing apart, revoke driver'slicense, cog functioning • Peopleforget that Erikson's stages correspond with Freud's stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) ○ Probably b/c it seems so psychosocial ○ Piaget'sformal & Freud's genital stage correspond with Erikson's last 4 stages • Gave quite equal emphasisto biological,social, psychological → to see how individualsadapt to their own unique life circumstances Erikson's life • The first "hippie" of major personality theory ○ Very individualistic ○ Resisted parent's pressure to study medicinein university,instead wandering around Europe. Eventually went to Vienna and found the Freud's. He went on to become a lay analyst ○ Probably the top 5 most influential theorist in psychology  He didn't even have a bachelor degreeo__O he had a teaching certificate (6 month training program) training program) ○ HE CHANGEDHIS NAME LEGALLY, was previousErik Homburger. He CHOSE Erikson. • Born inDenmark, with a traditional Europ
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