Social and cultural anthropology = the study of human culture, social organization, and behaviour. Physical anthropologists = seek to understand human variation, adaption, and change. Used to be focused on race and classifying according to their perceived physical types. Archaeology = study the material remains of past cultures, but not exclusively. Linguistic anthropology = explores the rate of decomposition and language. Culture = a system of meaning; provides the standards of value thru which action is judged and is usually an unconscious, taken-for-granted reality for the ppl who share it. Social memory = the social factors affecting recollection and forgetting (wickham. The nature of history = idea that history has a meaning and a direction. Concept of evolution entails this idea that what we see today has grown from what came before, that there are reasons for it, and it can be identified by scientific means.