• Social change refers to the transformation of culture and social institutions
• Structural, functionalism happens over the long term.
• Social conflict theory is brought up by radical change
• Symbolic interactionism, changing social meanings really shift and change
• Democracy, political system where power is distributed.
o Involved with struggles and issues of citizens rights
• Citizenship -membership within a particular state or nation
o Civil citizenship: freedom of speech, justice before the law
o Political Citizenship: involves the actual right to vote, and run for office.
Minority group had to fight for these political citizenship rights.
o social citizenship: recognizes the right to a certain level of economic
• New Social movements: movements that newly evolved since the 1950s.
o Universal citizenship: recognition of rights for marginalized groups,
rights to humanity of a whole to citizenship rights
• Masionis and Gerber- Characteristics of Social change
o Social change happens all the time -e.g. 1960s seen as iconic society's
of change ; these days the pace of social change is increasing -->
technology playing an increasing role in social movements e.g. Twitter -
played a massive role of protesting in Maldova and in Canada a protest
against (access to private information)-> this changes the way people
engage with the political system ; lower a persons class, the less likely they
are to vote
o Sometimes intentional and often unp