CHAPTER 8 - Motivation and Emotion notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
1006
Professor
Brad Mc Kay

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CHAPTER 8. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
CONCEPTS
o Motivation
Factors within & outside an organism that causes it to behave a certain way at a certain time
(direction, intensity & persistence)
Sources of motivation
Biological
Emotional
Cognitive
Social
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
o Instinct Theory
Motives are innate (automatic and unlearned)
o Drive Reduction Theory
an internal condition or impulse that activates behavior to reduce a need & restore
homeostasis
Biological disequilibrium -> biological need -> psychological drive to re-establish
homeostasis
Primary (biological) & Secondary (learned) drives
o Drives as states of the brain
The hub of many central drive systems is in the hypothalamus
o Arousal Theory
Behavior is motivated by a need/desire to maintain optimal levels of arousal
Arousal general levels of physiological arousal & our appraisal of such levels
A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky)
activities
o Incentive Theory
External goals “pull” or “push” behaviors
o Achievement Motivation
Need achievement meeting self-determined goals in order to experience satisfaction
Levels of need achievement differ from person to person and appear to result from
learning
RELATIONS AND CONFLICTS AMONG MOTIVES
o Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival
needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs.

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Description
CHAPTER 8. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION CONCEPTS o Motivation Factors within & outside an organism that causes it to behave a certain way at a certain time (direction, intensity & persistence)  Sources of motivation  Biological  Emotional  Cognitive  Social THEORIES OF MOTIVATION o Instinct Theory Motives are innate (automatic and unlearned) o Drive Reduction Theory  an internal condition or impulse that activates behavior to reduce a need & restore homeostasis  Biological disequilibrium -> biological need -> psychological drive to re-establish homeostasis  Primary (biological) & Secondary (learned) drives o Drives as states of the brain  The hub of many central drive systems is in the hypothalamus o Arousal Theory  Behavior is motivated by a need/desire to maintain optimal levels of arousal  Arousal – general levels of physiological arousal & our appraisal of such levels  A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky) activities o Incentive Theory External goals “pull” or “push” behaviors o Achievement Motivation  Need achievement – meeting self-determined goals in order to experience satisfaction  Levels of need achievement differ from person to person and appear to result from learning RELATIONS AND CONFLICTS AMONG MOTIVES o Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs. o Maslow proposed that the experience of unhappiness & psychological problems may be due to a deficiency orientation  deficiency orientation – discrepancy between what a person thinks they need & appreciation of what they already have available to them. BASIC EMOTIONS o Characteristics
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