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Chapter 6 notes - Learning.docx

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Brad Mc Kay

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CHAPTER 6. LEARNING The modification of pre-existing behaviour and understanding Classical Conditioning A neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with a stimulus that elicits an automatic response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response o Unconditioned stimulus  Elicits automatic response without conditioning o Unconditioned response  The automatic, unlearned response o Conditioned stimulus  The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing, has come to elicit the conditioned response o Conditioned response  The response that occurs as a result of presentation of the conditioned stimulus Application of CC o Phobias  Perceiving something (an object, situation…) as being more dangerous / threatening than it really is. o Development of Paraphilias  Paraphilias: abnormal sexual attractions (CC is often used to explain it) Operant Conditioning Process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones Principles of Operant Conditioning o Operant  Behaviour that has some effect o Reinforcer  An event that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again  Positive reinforcement (ex: reward) - Introduction of something pleasant which  Negative reinforcement (ex: hungry feeling) - Removal of an unpleasant stimulus/event  Primary reinforcement - Stimulus/event that meets an organisms basic needs (ex: food)  Secondary reinforce - Stimulus/event that an organism learns to like (ex: money) o Sex is among the most powerful reinforcement o Shaping  Reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response o Timing and Magnitude of Reinforcement  When reinforcement occurs, it will affect the learning of be
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