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How were Societies Organized - week 9 lecture notes.docx

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

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How were Societies Organized? Social Archaeology - The answers to these questions are not directly visible in the archaeological record - We have to tease out the answers from archaeological data o We have to ask the right questions of our data - Different societies provide different kinds of data - A question of scale o What is the largest societal unit? o What kind of society was it? - Classification of society o Mobile hunter gatherer o Segmentary society o Chiefdom o State o Based on differences in:  Size  Social organization  Economic organization  Settlement patterns  Religious organization  Architecture o Course measure, obviously not all societies will fit these classifications o These classifications allow us to organize our thoughts  We are really looking at changes over time o Not progressive o One is not better than another or more advanced than another In general, complex societies: - Show increased specialization o People no longer combine multiple aspects of their culture - Increased intensification of production - With intensification and specialization some people o Become wealthier o Wield more authority  Wealth and authority as basis for social status and ranking Methods of Social Analysis - Settlement analysis o What is the scale of the society  Number of sites  Size of sites  Distribution across landscape and relative to each other o Goals of settlement archaeology  Map and catalogue sites  Chronology  Architectural features  Population
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