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Anthro Week 8 Lecture Notes.docx

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ANTH 1010H
Jocelyn Williams

Anthro Week 8 Lecture Notes Annotated Bibliography - Choose 5 sources from resource location - Summarize article o Scholarly, SAA corrected - Reaction/digest of paper o What did I learn by reading the paper o Was it what I thought it would be o Was it helpful o Was it difficult to read o 200 words MAX - Annotation o A summary of the article listing purpose, sample, method, conclusions, and any problems; 300 words MAX Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Outside Europe - Asia less well known o Movement into Siberia 42,000ya o Northeast Siberia 30,000ya o Sets stage for migration to new world - Japan occupied for the first time o First wave around 35,000ya o Second wave ca. 20,000ya - Australia/New Guinea o 50,000ya by water (90-25km span) - End of Upper Palaeolithic o Majority of the world was colonized  Middle east, Europe, Africa may have been quite densely populated o Molder climate  Rising sea levels  Marked change in ecology/plants o Decline/extinction of large mammals o Environmental uncertainty led to new adaptive behaviours  Expansion/diversification of ecological niche  Adoption of new subsistence strategies Colder Conditions - Temperatures lowered 3 degrees on equator and 16 degrees in the north o Not arctic conditions  Richer vegetation o Drier than today  Expansion of grasslands o Sea levels lowered  England connected to continent, Siberia to North America and Indonesia to SE Asia First Americans - Multiple migrations from Asia - Linguistic data - DNA data o All native americans share a unique DNA segment  This indicates that they are closely related to each other - Timing? o Ca. 10-12kya but may be older - The Bering Land Bridge o 14-16kya Oral History and Peopling of the Americas - Some similarities between origin myths and routes of migration - Some similarities between descriptions and archaeological/climatological evidence Broad Spectrum Revolution - Around 15,000 years ago if not older o 8-10,000 years is traditional view - Adoption of aquatic hunting and fishing o Shellfish, fish weirs, net sinks - Adoption of tools for hunting small game o Nets, snares - Adoption of ground stone tools o Processing wild seeds and nuts o Heavy woodworking - Arose out of necessity - Large game became rarer/less predictable - Small scale agricultural systems are more efficient o 3,000 to 5,000 calories/hour of work Population Growth and Technological Development - Very closely related - Unclear if population or technology is the prime mover o Which came first, the chicken or the egg? - Boserup – Evolution of agricultural systems o Growing population was primarily stimulus o Simpler technology = most efficient use of labour o Advanced technology = most efficient use of space o Adoption of technology caused by increased population pressure Hunter and Gatherer Health and Nutrition 1960s view - !Kung San - Ethnographic analogy - Did not farm, considerable leisure time - Labour – 20hrs/week - 2100 calories - Nutritious diet - Good health Current View - San dietary intake fell below 2100kcal on a seasonal basis - Leisure as adaptation to extreme heat and dryness - Environmental extremes limited family size General Comments - Commonly well nourished o Although seasonally calories are inadequate - Nutritional diseases are rare
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