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Lecture 4

HIST 2110Y Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Triangular Trade, Natural Resource, Navigation Acts

Course Code
HIST 2110Y
Jeremy Milloy

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October 2, 2013
New England and the Middle Colonies
Plymouth Rock in 1620
Like the southern colonies, New England and the middle colonies developed in a
specific contexts
The factors that spawned these colonial experiments would go on to play a major
role in shaping the path these societies took
That path was very different from the one take by the southern colonies
New England
In 1608 a colony of Puritans who have given up on England went to Holland,
were illegal immigrants (couldn’t be a craftsman, had to take lower paying jobs),
worried they were going to lose their culture to Holland’s culture
The colony got permission to go to Virginia, shipped was called Mayflower,
horrible trip on ships due to winter, ended up off cross to Cape Cod
The Mayflower Compact was an example of the tensions between social cohesion
and freedom that marked the early years of New England
Half the people died on the boat (they lived on the boat for the first year in Cape
Cod) from disease and other aspects
Indigenous assistance was circuital to the Pilgrims’ survival after landing at
Plymouth Rock. The Pilgrims expressed their gratitude with the first feast of
Pilgrims were poor but could practice their religion in peace
The Massachusetts Bay Company
After the Pilgrims settled in the New World, they were followed by a group of
Originally planned as a speculative venture, but Puritan merchants decided to
found a colony to practice their religion freely and escape persecution in England
Unlike the Southern colonies, they settled in family groups, increasing cohesion
and the natural growth of their population
Believed they were creating a Godly example for a fallen world, or a “city on a
hill” (a corrupt world could emulate), as their first leader, John Winthrop, put it
They created a form of representative government (Freeman – all male citizens),
albeit one restricted to men and church members, which had a great deal of
overlap between church and state
No church hierarchy, known as the congregational church
Like Jamestown there was early problems and debts, although they got over it
quicker, there were families who had stronger ties and more difficult to move so
they wanted to work it out unlike Jamestown who were a bunch of single men just
looking for a quick buck
Some left for better farm land, many moved to the Connecticut Valley where there
were many aboriginals
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October 2, 2013
American Exceptionalism
America’s belief
Believed by Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004)
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island
Dissident from the Massachusetts Bay colony, believed in religious freedom and
fair dealings with the indigenous people
Believed God didn’t have favourites and liked everyone equally
Founded a town called Providence in Rhode Island
Wanted freedom of worship
Established a government like Massachusetts, where every male could vote,
didn’t believe in taxing members for the church
Shows the separate of the church and the state
Anne Hutchinson
Another Puritan (believed that people were chosen by God) dissident
Religious liberal who became one of the founders of Rhode Island after her
banishment from Massachusetts Bay Colony
Was exiled for her belief that individuals could obtain their salvation directly from
Was more of an outspoken women than expected at this time
Died during an aboriginal rebellion
Aboriginals and New Comers
After a period of harmony at the outset, relationships between aboriginal peoples
and the newcomers quickly soured, because of continued European incursions
into aboriginal territory
Two major wars in the 17th century included the Pequot War and King Phillip’s
War (1675, started due to the classic tension of land, aboriginals went in a
slaughtered Europeans, over 1,000 people and 1 in 16 men)
Though the English triumphed in both, aboriginals remained a military threat
Many nations capable of launching serious attacked, or of allying with the other
European nations present in the north: Holland and France
This web of alliance between European factions and aboriginal groups was an
important dynamic in the area for decades
Middle Colonies
New York: granted to Duke of York (James), became the most diverse of the
English colonies after they conquered the previous Dutch holders, government
like Carolina
New Jersey: granted by Duke to two political allies, eventually merged into one
colony, colony of small farms
Pennsylvania: a refuge for Quakers (name established because they should be
scared of God, believed everyone could go to heaven, men and women were
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