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Lecture 7

PSYC 3420H Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Cognitive Flexibility, Goal Setting, Interpersonal Relationship

Course Code
PSYC 3420H
Fergal O' Hagan

of 9
Lecture 7 & Chapter 8
Chapter Outline
oCorrective Motivation
oTwo Types of Discrepancy
Goal Setting
oGoal-Performance Discrepancy
Goal Difficulty
Goal Specificity
oDifficult, Specific Goals Enhance Performance
oGoal Acceptance
oLong-Term Goal Setting
Goal Striving
oMental Simulations: Focusing on Action
oImplementation Intentions
oGoal Pursuit: Getting Started
oGoal Pursuit: Persisting and Finishing
Lecture Objectives
oDescribe TOTE concept of self-regulation
Explain how it relates to goal setting
oExplain how discrepancy operates to motivate behaviour
Two forms of discrepancy
oDiscuss mechanisms through which goals work to motivate behaviour
Key features of effective goals
oIdentify variables that modify the goal
Performance relationship
oExplain the role of feedback in a goal setting-goal striving framework
oDiscuss the key criticisms of goal setting approach to behaviour
oDefine implementation intentions
How they enable goal striving
oIdentify steps in effective goal setting process
oWhy do people not do their best when they "try to do their best"
Lack of specifics
oCognitive study of motivation began in 1960
Miller, Galanter, Pribram
People have mental representations of ideal states of their
own behaviour, environmental objects, and events
Ex: Idea of what the ideal gift would be
(environmental object)
Ex: Idea of a good night on the town (ideal event)
People are aware of the present state of their behaviour,
environment and events
Ex: Aware of current tennis serve
Mismatch perceived between present and ideal state
causes incongruity
People formulate plans to remove incongruity
Acts as a spring to action
Plan becomes the means of organizing our
behaviour toward the pursuit of the ideal state
Test-Operate-Test-Exit Model (TOTE)
Test: Compare the present state against the ideal
Mismatch between the two springs the
individual to action
Motivates individual to operate on
the environment by a planned sequence of
If feedback reveals that incongruity
continues to persist then the person continues to
operate on the environment
T-O-T-O-T-O…. Etc.
Ex: Bad hair day
Ever-repeated process of comparing the
present versus the ideal, followed by incongruity-
reducing behavioural adjustments is a common
feature of everyday life
Plans can be long term and short term
When plans cause incongruity, we
experience enough discomfort to stir us into
Follows machine operations
Corrective Motivation
oPlan Action sequence portrays individuals as
1. Detecting present-ideal inconsistencies
2. Generating a plan to eliminate the incongruity
3. Instigating plan-regulated behaviour
4. Monitoring feedback as to extent of any remaining present-ideal
oActivates a decision making process in which the individual considers
many different possible ways for reducing the present-ideal congruity
1. Change the plan
2. Change behaviour
3. Withdraw from the plan altogether
oPlan directed behaviour is a dynamic flexible process In which corrective
motivation energizes the individual to pursue the most adaptive
1. Corrective motivation is going back and forth between two points
listed above
oWhen people progress toward their ideal states at faster than expected
1. discrepancy reduction produces positive emotions such
oWhen people progress toward their ideal states at slower-than-expected
1. Persistent and salient discrepancy produces negative emotions
such as anxiety, frustration
1. Present State:
Current status of how life is going
When it falls short of hoped for ideal state,
discrepancy occurs