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Hist 1000 Notes

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HIST 1000
Harriet Edwards

Major Tenets of Luther’s Beliefs 1. Only source of religious truth was the bible 2. Mankind is saved by faith alone not by faith and works. Man incapable of doing enough good works to satisfy God 3. Believes Pope was theAntichrist. Condemned practice of selling papal pardons for sings to raise money Aftermath of Luther -Luther’s message was one of religious reform but people saw its social, economic and political implications. Set in motion violent protests e.g. -1521 – revolt by the free imperial Knights -1521-24 – Peasant War led by Thomas Muntzer. Estimated as many as 300,000insurgents involved - Muntzer tortured and beheaded on May 27, 1525. Estimates of death toll range from 50 to 150 thousand. Described by Engels as first communist prophet John Calvin 1509-1564 - Theological writings spread as far as US and Canada. Internationalized the Reformation -Fled homeland of France in 1536. Settled in Geneva.Absorbed supporters of Ulrich Zwingli. Established a Christian society ruled by God through civil magistrates and reformed ministers. -Believed God had called him to reform the Church -Cornerstone of his theology was a belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity -Believed that God selected those to be saved. The idea of predestination was not shared by Luther. Elect should do good works in response to God’s benevolence. Calvinism -By 1540s Calvinism a major force in: 1. France (Huguenots) 2. Holland (The Reformed Church) 3. Scotland (Presbyterianism led by John Knox) 4. England (Puritanism) By C17th followers believed that the ELECT had a duty to work in the secular world and that wealth accumulated in business was a sign of God’s favour Calvin (Continued) ● Cornerstone of his theology was a belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity ● Believed that God selected those to be saved. The idea of PREDESTINATION was not shared by Luther. The ELECT should do good works in response to God’s benevolence. ● It implies an exclusive club – understandable that Luther doesn’t like it. By 1540s Calvinism a major force in: France (Huguenots) Holland (the Reformed Church) Scotland (Presbyterianism led by John Knox) England (Puritanism) By C17th followers believed that the ELECT had a duty to work in the secular world and that wealth accumulated in business was a sign of God’s fate. TheAnabaptists or “rebaptizers” ● Rejection of infant baptism ● Believe it should be reserved for adults who can make a conscious choice. ● Refused to take civil oaths or take public office.Advocated a separation of church and state. (Seven DayAdventist) ● Persecuted by Catholics and Protestants. ● One surviving sect was led by Dutchman Menno Simons (1496-1561). Followers known as Mennonites, moved into Germany, Poland and then into NorthAmerica. The Peace ofAugsburg (pg. 284) September 1555 – made the division on Christendom permanent after decades of war led by Charles V of Spain The English Reformation Henry VIII ● His obsession with producing a male heir was born out of his feat that a weakened monarchy could lead to a repetition of the War of the Roses which saw the English nobility divided in a fierce and protracted battle which almost destroyed the noble classes. Henry VIII and the Break with Rome (r1509-1547) ● Henry initially hostile to Luther’s ideas of reform ● Broke with Rome over his desire to divorce his wife – Catherine ofAragon – who was unable to bear him a son ● Henry’s argument was that his marriage was cursed because he had committed incest by marrying his brother’s (Arthur) wife Catherine ofAragon ● She was unable to bear Henry a son. Mother of Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) ● Pope Clement VII refused request. Henry’s advisers divided into two camps: Sir Thomas More – Resigned in 1532 and beheaded in 1535 (Saint) ● VS. Thomas Cranmer (Personal Baptist to Boleyn family) and Thomas Cromwell (loyal, draws up legal documents). Protestants. Used marriage issue to pry Henry out of papal camp. Pope Clement VII (1523-34) ● He refused to grant Henry an annulment of his marriage. This would invalidate the dispensation which had been previously granted by his processor (Julius II). In addition, Emperor Charles V was Catherine’s nephew and he held the Pope in captivity in Rome (pg. 285) ● French Wars of Religion 301-303 ● Edict of Nantes 305 ● England and Spain 308-313 ● The Treaty of Westphalia 317 Europe is in a state of constant warfare with the common denominator being the Protestant/Catholic struggle ● Struggle often manifested itself in the form of civil war. Two of major importance were: ○ French civil wars 1562-1598 between Catholics and Huguenots ○ Puritan revolt in England 1610-1660 which saw the execution of a king and …? ○ Int’l wars e.g. Spain’s attack on England and the defeat of the Spanish Armada ● Period also characterized by increasing skepticism and a search for authority – in the wake of the trauma and uncertainty of the reformation ● Rise in the witch-hunts with thousands suffering at the hands of both Church and State Rise of Christian Wars ● 1562 – The Queen mother, Catherine de Medici attempted to being toleration to the conflict between Huguenots and Catholics (in the name of the 10 year old kind Charles IX) ● Huguenots were 7% of the population. Killing of a few dozen Protestants at Vassy began the first of 8 civil wars which culminated in the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre on August 24, 1572 ● Murders on both sides led to 30 years of civil war ● Fear rose of total civil breakdown. Yearning for strong centralized authority which would allow for the rise of the absolutist Louis XIV. ● April 1598 – Henry IV (1589-1610) granted toleration for the Huguenots in the Edict of Nantes (pg. 305) which successfully ended the religious wars ● Henry VIII (Act of Supremacy 1534)-Edward VI-(Lady Jane Grey)-Mary Tudor (Philip II)-Elizabeth I (Act of Supremacy 1559) ● King Philip II of Spain ● He was the architect of the SpanishArmada which sought to depose the “bastard heretic” Elizabeth I of England Mary Tudor The ThirtyYears’War pg. 313 ● Engulfed most European powers – began as religious struggle over election of Catholic Ferdinand as king of Protestant Bohemia. Resistance by German princes. ● Germany was the main battleground. ● Ended with Peace of Westphalia. France emerged as dominant power in Europe replacing Spain. 323-334- Two Models of European Development 338-341- Constitutional Crisis and
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