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art history 101 ancient greek and helenistic.docx

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Department
Art History
Course Code
ART H101
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Hajnalka

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October 22, 2013 Ancient Greek and Hellenistic Art Greeks are the beginning of the classical world. o Pass down the idea of heroes, athletic people who are the image of a hero o after the Mycenaean domination of the region ends, , a cultural decline then the classical dark period o Hellas- area where Greek was spoken, Greek inhabited, mainland and the Peloponnese, not a country, spoke the same language, worshipped the same gods o Attica-whole land that was influences or ruled by Athens -Athens had about 30000 citizens o Polis-city states -a person that lives in a city state has rights, not just protection but eights to have a say in the affairs of the state, input into what the laws will be -Greeks bring in the idea of direct democracy -different idea of how they defined a citizen, that was restricted, to aristocrats, males, land holders, -male sons become citizen at a certain Aegean -wives and children are property o Greek gods are very much human, same weaknesses, characters, only difference is they are powerful and immortal, you must give them things, sacrifices, build them houses o Temenos-large expanded sanctuary cites, religious festivals, communal events, sporting events, oplypius, shrines o Delphi-oracle site, temple dedicated to Apollo, heavily visited, wealthy because people will pay to ask advice about what the future will hold #5-20 o Artists are now signing things because they want people to know that they made them different attitude that paved the way for transformation o Greek vase painting is divided into different stylistic phases o Anything before 900BC tell us something that is happening on the mainland that is more organized as a culture, called proto geometric o 9-700BC, referred to as the geometric period, geometric looking, parallel development painted vessels o Athens is one center and another is Corinth-what comes out of there is more organic animal motifs, eastern influence, Asia minor(Persia) -Corinthian-art from Corinth -eastern motifs are called orientalising o Different kinds of vases: -Archaic period-600BC colors, black figure technique, ordinary is called red figure -Amphora-vessel with various sizes, -Psykter-wine cooler -Hydria-catch water, water jug, wider base, 3 handles -Olpe-pouring jug, pitcher, -Kylix-drinkning cup, thin stand, wide and shallow -Krater- 1. Bell Krater-the simplest term, looks like a bell, 2. Calyx Krater-fancier one 3. Volute Krater-large decorative handle o Proto geometric-broad areas of color, ways of decorating the vases #5-2 o Geometric amphora-tightly packed with bands of geometric ornaments, could be used as grave markers, if handles are on belly=for woman, on neck=for man o Dypolon-grave area, where grave makers were used o Prosthesis scene-funerary scene, mourning, dead person laying, surrounded by mourners, family members o shows wailing woman o symposium-male society, started for intellectual reasons, then later became more like parties, social activity only open to men -men would bring vessels to their friends when they passed o Hydria-shows the activities of women -woman had a different kind of life , no one really cared for the education of women, even the wives of the rich were illiterate, treated as property, make transition from fathers house to their husbands house -only could communicate with each other at the well o Gynos-bearer of women o Olpe-comes out of Corinth, more organic subjects, plant like, floral motifs, Persian, o Archaic black figure amphoras-bringing attention to central scenes, leaving areas black, narratives, images of heroes, art of silhouette, use watered down clay (slip) used a coating they paint onto it, scratch onto the surface -use signatures of makers, artist identity claim credit -many of them discovered in Tuscany, Italy o Greeks became heroes by dying in a heroic way o Herron-dead man, HEROE o Hercules-major figure in Greek myth, he angers the gods so he has to prove himself by heroic actions -kills his family but doesn’t realize it -First famous deed is killing a lion that was tormenting a whole region, skins the lion as trophy o Another way of making silhouettes, painting the background and leaving the silhouettes the color of the regular vase desire for naturalism using red slips as well o Viertus-manly qualities that only a man could have (roman term) o No taboo against homosexuality o profane collection-hidden away, images of homosexuality o satirical drama-men are writing about women and are speculating about what the women are doing o kourous-(sculpture)-archaic, features elements, monumental free standing sculptures, shows a free young male , dominant sculpture form, always nude, no female kourous, look reserved, don’t have supporting material on the back ground, not having clothes is not a sign of poverty, they are NUDE not NAKED -Nude-doesn’t require clothes, used for content, if you cover with clothes, you cover the meaning, inner perfection -Naked-something is missing, writer is making a point, usually associated with shame, something is wrong with the figure ESSAY QUESTION OF NUDE VS NAKED -goal of human form is to show perfection -set up as grave markers for fallen heroes -kroisos is the name -how to recognize archaic vs. classical? Archaic stand with knees locked in place, almost like walking, not a lot of muscle, stylistic hair, emphasise on eyes, almond shape, archaic smile (grin-used as visual convention), not about emotional state, muscle is shown in lines not by added material, stylistic knee caps -in the classical period-40 years later, one found in Athens, reason that we see a change is because communication changesmilitary conflict/Persian invasion o contrapposto-smile is gone, body more relaxed and more naturalistic, manner of representing the human body so the weight looks like it only on one leg, first time in Greek sculpture 480BC, showing actual muscles o wars that changes the Greek and Athenian worldview: both ended with Athenian victory, single runner runs 26 miles, his name is Phidippides, second war took place at salamis, sea battle, ingenious strategy, decades of conflict ended by Persians being pushed backchanges the Greek world view of themselves, shows humanity and what we are capable of -before believed that fate was inevitable, gods had control, you are their toy -after victories, developed human central point of view, translated in visual art in increased naturalism, celebrate physical form, not fixated on a mental idea of form, more recognizable o Kore-female figure, sanctuary offerings, never nude, nudity reserved for men because they show virtue, archaic time, peplos (garment), painted just like the men, show evidence of anatomy underneath, called wet folder drapery, would hold a plate or a dish (little ones), not a weight shift, has the smile and the same facial expression ARCHAIC o You don’t see a lot of change in architecture
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