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Lecture 1

ART H102 Lecture 1: Art History 102 - Entire Course

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Art History
ART H102
Hajnalka Santa- Balazs

Main Categories of Analysis 1. Context/Background 2. Content/Subject Matter 3. Meaning 4. Formal Elements 5. Reception Classical Antiquity – 5/6 century B.C. – 5/6 century A.D. (1000 year period) • Renaissance – time period designator o Attitude, philosophy, ideology, perspective o The re-birth of a legacy rediscovered by intellects rereading what is known as classical antiquity o Comes after medieval/middle ages o Revolutionary in its effects • What was the age of enlightenment Middle Ages Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Middle Ages Renaissance (Age of Faith) • Development of politics, democracy • Religion – very important • Artistic achievements o Architecture – medieval church (catholic) ▪ Most authoritative figure o Fusion of secular and religious powers Cathedrals • Typical high medieval concepts o Community projects, not financed by the church o Dedication is significant o 10-13 centuries more stone used than the 3000 years of ancient Egypt • Illumination = embellishment o Hand made manuscript • Vast majority of art produced in the middle ages are books and imagery in books (in monasteries) o Monasteries – cultural sights, learning cultivated literature concentrated to monasteries • Vast majority of artists are monks or nuns – “illuminators” o Anonymous and religious professionals o Art is not about them o Communicator through which language is communicated o Master the tools of communication and work for greater good and betterment of society as an instrument of communication o No ART for ART’s SAKE • Artist creates the language which is communicated in • All 2D – some attempt at indicating mass o Not the point – not after accuracy Medieval – information vs. Illusion Renaissance - What you believe - optical reality - Looking through – opens up a 3D reality At vs. Through - Visually convincing, creates perfect simulation Factors in Transformation 1. Socio-Political 2. Demographic 3. Economic Development of Towns/Cities - Focus on migration as population moves into cities - Social class develops; was not present o The middle class - Generally improved living standards - Larger population clusters – population explosion o Longer life expectancies - The Black Death – the plague will cause an enormous epidemic – wipes out 1/3 of population - Will cause cultural revival (money becomes available) o Art always tied to money, power Rediscover Greek and Roman Legacy • Artists go to where the money is • Artists represent what is happening • Getting to know our physical world • Daring to compare what the “books” tell us of the cosmos vs. what observation tells us • From primary form of communication to just being a work of art • Recognition • Artists as visionaries • Art and God share capacity to have idea and give it a material form • Artists lobby for higher status Pieta • Northerners – more emotional approach than Easterners • Meant to be an emotional physical focus • Gruesomeness underscores the importance of suffering “Imitation and Innovation” Artist Training: • Goal: faithful representation of revered content believed to be divinely inspired • Copying samples and accepted prototypes, not observational • Perfecting techniques and establishing formulas through repetition/ copying Giotto • Humanistic approach to subject matter • Observational approach to representation o Through human experiences o ***humanism = human centered philosophy ▪ From a human perspective o Beginning of naturalistic tendency o Context, content, form • Techniques more innovative • Proto-renaissance • Unique, personal style • Start a new process, starting point in western world Comparison of #18-5 and #18-6 Space 5 • Devoid of space, 2D • Attempting to indicate space, perspective • Attempting special recession – poorly executed • Not consistent with how it appears in reality 6 • Continuity throughout Surface 5 • Old-fashioned, idea of folds in robes • “comb highlights” – not naturalistic 6 • 3D articulation of form, highlights, and shadows to give dimension 18-8 Lamentation • Humanly orientated way of delivering o Make it human by making it relatable o Real natural setting, real human emotion o Expanded scene – Christ being mourned o Cosmos (heaven) reacts with same emotional response o Rendered in very real way – 3D • Other pictures have signs of emotions, but not convincing Chiaroscuro • Light and dark • A total device (14 century) when artists work with tones • Used tonality to indicate depth in space o No longer looking at – looking through • Represents 3D objects, space Foreshortening • A deliberate distortion in representation which aims to create the illusion that objects and figures recede into, or project out of space o Mantegna: Lamentation (14800 – good example of foreshortening • Experiential way of viewing Atmospheric (aerial) Perspective • Aim to simulate depth and distance • Varying in tonality • Like seeing the mountains in the distance Intuitive Perspective • Method of giving the impression on special recession by visual instinct • Diminutive – involving scale, progressively decreasing size to indicate special relations between composition elements/objects o Scale Fresco Painting (Giotto’s Technique) • Done on plaster, should be wet • True fresco remarkably long lasting, durable, labour intensive, very organized, skill intensive • Fresco Secco (dry fresco) o Don’t need to rush o Can flake off o Used to conceal artifact of other method o Design before hand • Cartone o Prelim drawings o Small scale o Large sections (blown up) also called cartone • Sinopia o Red dust artists used to draw or transfer images to larger scale o Transferred drawing onto plaster • Intonaco o Top layer, thinnest, almost transparent marble dust, lower layers have sand • Fresco Paint – Water, lime (chemical), pigment o Lim binds the colour to the walls surface o No room for error • Girona o Days’ work o Artists work in sections o The dividing lines o The area that can be painted while the plaster is still wet o Variations due to conditions o Set order: top – bottom – left – right and down Giorgio Vasari • “Lives of the most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” – 1550 o Collection of biographies o 1550 version is for Italian artists; 1568 version includes more Northern artists ▪ Humanism • Wanted to promote Florentinian artists • Plays on humanism, makes it interesting • Introduces idea that artists are god like geniuses Artists are superiors, not unlike others - Not only making things beautiful, but meaningful as well - Argue that they are intellectuals New types of patronage: • Private – wealthy business people, early entrepreneurs, merchants, bankers • Secular Institutions – towns, city councils, guilds, professional organizations • Guilds – part of shifting from middle ages to Renaissance; professionals o Huge amount of political power **In order to interpret – who commissioned the work – why is it where it is? 18-1 Amborgia Lorenzetti: Sella della Pace, Palazzo Publico, Sienna • Form of self government • Decided external and domestic policies • Essentially oligarchy’s • ***just because it isn’t religious doesn’t mean it doesn’t have meaning** • Conceived as a moral boot camp o Effects of virtues vs. the vices and corruption 18-5 – good government in the city and the country • Unusual for large pictures to carry this type of subject matter • Moralizing element – instructive o A reminder for the city fathers • Arrangement hierarchic – how subject matter is presented • Comparison of good and bad Scrovegni (“Arena”) Chapel • Family fortune made in banking o Maybe not made in the best ways • Commissioned painting to help church get over father’s sin • Use as a P.R. stunt • Monk’s didn’t want Scrovegni’s there, they built without permit – family didn’t abide by what they said (they, the family, would do) • Used religion as a pretext but is actually a financial, family dynasty stunt • Exploiting fellow Christians • Last judgement – the last thing they will see before leaving • Virtue of financial investment (???) Regin Paces, Brooklyn • Founded 1904 by Italian immigrants o Wasn’t built until 1948-1951 o Funded by community o Silent collection – no coins, bills only Flanders • Belgium – Duke of Burgundy, ruler of Flanders o Flemish vs Italian • In Flanders the “renaissance” is not the same • Flanders much more densely populated o Bourgeois society • Very urbanized, heavy merchant presence, heavy Italian presence Limbourg Brothers: Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry – Book of Hours • First mentioned in 1416 o Inventory of the duke’s estate upon his death o Describes a series of incomplete and unbound pages that were gathered together by the executors o These gathered pages (folios) are noted as the “tres riches heures) (or very rich[ly decorated] hours” • Prayer book • Small size – consider the details • Flemish works very detailed but very small • 12 cover pages for each month o Exceptional work o Extremely extravagant is style (wardrobe, etc) • Works generally need to be small and portable • Detail oriented • Medium – will be expanded by adding oil painting • Tempura • Wood panels – oil painting – linseed w/pigment. • Applied in 100’s of this transparent layers to form a nice colour – called glazing • Back drops are actual settings in Flanders Italian vs. Flemish Perspectival Systems Flemish - colour is symbolic as artist is encouraging the viewer to continue looking - more intuitive basis - Atmospheric Perspective o Tidy, very articulate, do saturate the colours in the distance o Backgrounds are more interesting o Allows contemporary viewer’s know more o Archaic religious subjects and put them in contemporary/modern setting Italian - Italians treat surface as a geometric template - Linear or Single Point Perspective o Filippo Brunelleschi ▪ Designed a system based on geometry, math ▪ What you get is a reliable, predictable result ▪ Not instinctive, impromptu ▪ Grid defines space and proportions ▪ Can be very simple or quite complicated o Mind-eye paradox (railroad tracks) ▪ “know” vs. “see” “at” vs. “through” ▪ Tunnels, corridors, optical illusion that they will meet ▪ Ration interpretation ▪ Content oriented fashion • Illusion of what the world looks like ▪ Fundamental to Italian approach transversals Vanishing point Horizontal line Ground plane/ bottom edge of the window Intuitive Perspective (see Flemish comparison) - No fixed vanishing point, atmospheric approach - A method of giving the impression of special recession by visual instinct, not an overall and consistent program - Diminution = involving scale, progressively decreasing size to indicate special relations between composition, elements/objects - Separate objects so they aren’t distorted, so the “tip: the table to show things better Diptych • Not necessarily altar piece, two component pieces, displayed together, might be hinged. o Add another piece and you get… ▪ Triptych o Conceived together Polyptych • Anything over three panels, multiple, various configurations Predella • Similar to polyptych, an explanatory image • A foot note to the main concept (an image on a base below the painting) Corpus • Might have layers, has a shrine at the bottom • Usually carved, not painted Symbolism – looking for relationship • Iconography o Icon = image; graphy = drawing of == interpretation Merode Altarpiece • 3 components – triptych • Donor and wife kneeling – separate panel • Carpenters workshop – older man working – Joseph? o Making a sieve for wine – represents the blood of Christ – in the process of being made, like Christ isn’t born yet in the process of o Mouse traps – how he trapped Satan • Immaculate Conception – refers to Mary o Not the product of sin o Conceived in middle ages so that she is pure • Virginal Birth o Sinless, free of original sin • Unlike other women, perfect person • Mary – contemporary stereotype o Flemish artists have an ideal of what they want • Disguised Symbolism – when ordinary objects carry extraordinary meaning (symbolic) • Sitting on the footrest – sign of humility • 1 stem, 3 flowers, one of which is a bud o 1 God, 3 different aspects, one of which is flesh (Christ?) ▪ The father, son, holy spirit • Candle – blown out temporarily, immortality of human life • Vase – particular style – grape vines (grapes = wine= blood of Christ) • Pewter Vessel – reflects light • Towel – purity • Glass – clear glass used as a symbol for Mary and her purity – divine miracle Vanitus Vanitatum Omnia Vanitas • Remind us that material possessions will be meaningless when we die Jan van Eyck • Most famous of Flemish artists • Diplomat • Highly regarded • Portraitist, map maker, chemist, very learned • Flamboyant, turban Giovanni Arnolfini & Giovanna Cinami • Lived in Bruges • Banker, dealer of tapestries • “pictorial affidavit” or “witness statement” • Legal framework – an actual legal document Philip the Good • Employer of Arnolfini and van Eyck • Duke of Burgundy (1396-1467) Idealized pictures – can’t always count on them Flexibility with dowry – depending on appearance Giovanni Wedding Portrait • Portrait of the ideal marriage o Arnolfini commissioned the painting • Complex network of symbols o Signature o Mirror – eye-witness statement ▪ Point of view you would not see ▪ Becomes an instrument of surveillance; “God” = all seeing ▪ Scenes from the crucifixion on mirror ▪ Convex mirror ▪ Blue person meant to be artist ▪ Red person could be clergy man, father of the bride o Glass beads ▪ Giovanna quite similar to Virgin Mary • Ideal woman ▪ Transparent – glass symbolism – represents great morality – purity o Pregnancy? ▪ Nope. Fashion, which = social status ▪ Wealthy woman – she is holding the front train of her dress • Fashion not practical at the time • Unable to do anything but that was a symbol of status ▪ Elegance o External/physical qualities: feminine ideal/contemporary standards of beauty ▪ No eyebrows, high forehead – represent noble birth ▪ Headdresses o Inner qualities, virtues, and the feminine ideal ▪ Domesticated – feather duster (Virgin Mary) ▪ Fertility – St. Margaret – patron saint of motherhood o Burning candle ▪ Marriage could only be dissolved if they had not consummated ▪ Had to be witnesses to carnal relations ▪ The bride would carry a burning candle in and it would be snuffed out afterward o Dog ▪ Marital loyalty; sexual fidelity ▪ High end dog – exotic mix ▪ Companion dog to ladies ▪ Symbolizes loyalty and fidelity (Fido) • An elusive concept (loyalty) takes on meaning o Shoes ▪ Sanctity of situation – naked feet – represents hold ground – sacred ▪ The wooden clogs were worn over their normal shoes Hubert and Jan van Eyck: “The Altarpiece of the Lamb” or the “Ghent Altarpiece” • Polyptych (12 panels)(Monuments Men) • Ghent – Church of John the Baptist • Rededicated to St. Vaury • Landscape is continuous • Normally closed because it is so holy • At the top – Jesus or God? Wearing a crown similar to what popes wear – pope tiara (3 tiers) o Different crown at feet – could be representation of crown of the faithful ▪ Rev 4:9-11 “cast their crowns before the thrown” • On the bottom – paradise: lamb represent son of God o Innocent sacrifice • Four distinct groups o Holy clerics – martyrs carry palm leaves; bishops, monks o Holy warriors o Hermits – holy men who withdrew from society o Christian (female) martyrs Grisaille • Monochromatic, singular color tone • Tonal device • Artist is trying to simulate 3D sculptures Attributes of Saints • Objects set them apart • St. Margaret (mother) - Mary Magdalen (daughter) o Dragon, with cross o Daughter of Pagan governor ▪ Offered to Pagan prince o Refused marriage, became Christian o Was tortured o The power of the cross • St. Lucy o Eyes o Plate with eyeballs o Blinded before beheaded; sight was restored • St. Sebastian o Pierced with arrows • St. Arnold o Rakes o Minding barley and hops • St. Catherine of Alexandria o Torture by wheel o Beheaded by sword • St. Bartholomew o Skinned alive • St. Stephen o Christian martyr #1 o Stoned to death • St. Lawrence/ Lawrence of Rome o Burnt alive (basically cooked alive) Jean Fouquet: Melun Diptych c. 1450 • Commissioned by Etienne Chevalier • Agnes Sorel – official mistress of the King of France – model for Virgin Mary • Painter was in Italy before doing the painting – well versed in both (space) techniques • Agnes Sorel – posthumous picture represents new kind of status (mistress of the King) o First appeared in the court in 1443, died by 1450 o What kind of influence did she have? o Politically – picking fights, starting wars • Queen Marie – raised 14 children o Very pious, face that would have inscribed few even from the English • Not blasphemous because King was ok with it Hugo van der Goes: Portinari Altarpiece 1474-1476 triptych • Painted in the North • Commissioned by Tommaso PortinarI and Maria Baroncelli in Bruges (connected with the Medici) • Intended location: Portinari Chapel, Milan • Actual location: Church Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova o Founded by Folco Portinari in 1288 • Over 8 feet tall • Very sensational – noting like the Florentines had ever seen before • Grisaille • Used as a PR exercise – donor panels (principle of dexterity) o Women less important, on left (my right). Important people on the right (my left) • Center – different stages of events – read by association • Flemish painting – actual buildings/places to tell where they are • Shepherds more realistic – ugly – contemporary witnesses – thematic reinforcement • Baby – controversially placed – symbolism becomes quite literal o Radiating • Flowers in the foreground o Symbolic – nature of the situation o Wheat – bread – mass – bread and wine turned into the body of Christ o Crockery – grape vines and grapes ▪ Duplicated in real life o Transparent glass – see previous notes on glass ▪ Water – blood and water o Flowers – Irises ▪ Purple – royal colour ▪ White – purity ▪ Carnation – blood red ▪ Other flowers represent sorrow (columbines) and bitterness • ***foreshadowing ▪ Violet’s – Virgin’s purity – humble, simple Italy • Ghibellines and Guelphs (political factions) • 15 century – Italy not a real country – network of independent states- constantly shifting political alliances o Northern Italy pledged allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire o Southern states (Guelph) to the Pope o Papal states played a very important role ▪ Pope religious but interested in war and politics • Significant territorial claims • Florence where government resided Florence • Duomo – largest church in the center of town o Bell tower designed by Giotto • 1348 – hit by Plague – population cut in half o Delay for renaissance – doesn’t get going until the turn of the century o Higher concentration of resources into fewer hands The Medici Florin • Started as merchants, went into banking, bankers to the papacy. o Eventually take over the papacy • Invented double entry book keeping • Instruments in financial dynasty o Contribute money back to the community o “corporate charity” • Very educated and cultural • Investing into culture – made Florence the ideal place for the renaissance • Science, objectivity, art, political science Plato’s “Theory of Forms” or “Theory of Ideas” • “Forms” are the essences of various objects that exist in the “Realm of Forms” without this essential set of defining qualities which makes them what they are, a thing would not be the kind of thing it is • Forms are the most pure of all things, unchanging, and are the objective “blueprints” of perfection • What we are perceiving when looking at the world is the corrupted material reflection of what exists as a perfect form. Editorial process – idealization Plato – Allegory of the Cave • Morality o Corruption • Artists portrayal • Fusion with classical Greek antiquity vs. Christianity Masaccio: Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella • Domenico Lenzi Signoria • Filippo Brunelleschi 1. Classical revival evidence a. Reality based content vehicle 2. Objective approach to representation 3. Linear (scientific) perspective (applied geometry) 4. Chiaroscuro 5. Patronage (private) Brancacci Chapel - Masaccio - Families sponsor churches – get publicity – eventually becomes a memorial - Deals with life of St. Peter (this one in particular) Tribute Money • Perspective • Catasto – debate about defense tax in Florence – pay according to needs – who should pay how much • Money, politics and taxation • Fund – which with they hired mercenaries who made up the army o Florence had to maintain their army • Same people thought they should be exempt from paying o Everyone must pay • Christ uses this as a lesson to show responsibilities • Various stages of what is happening – clues from the painting show us what is happening • Chastity – gesture indicates something about inside quality Masaccio • Takes the ideal image of Venus and makes it into the grieving – Venus, nude – Eve, naked o Shame in being naked Monastery of San Marco • Home of religious officials • Lorenzo Medici would come for spiritual retreats • Private finance Fra Angelico • Monk and artist • Frescoes in monasteries • Annunciation o Personal contemplative devices in each cell Refectory, Convent of Saint Apollonia, Florence • Dining hall • Last Super (1447) – Andrea del Castagno o Foundation of Mass (bread & wine – body & blood) Paolo Uccello: The Battle of San Romano • Commissioned to memorialize battle • Originally hung in Medici Palace • Depicts war as pageantry • Problems with perspective – obsessed with geometry, mathematical approach • Niccolo Mauruzi da Tolentino o Condotta – contract o Condottieri – military leader ▪ Regarded as honorary citizens Pietro Perugino: Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter • Sistine Chapel – named after donor Sixtus the Fourth • Rome an embarrassment o Need to something to build it up • Perigino helps decorate the chapel • St. Peter first bishop of Rome – the Pope • Jesus giving him the “keys” to the gates of heaven • Arch of Constantine o Rome – center of Christianity Fusion of the [1] classical ideal with the [2] Christian in renaissance (architecture as collective expression, institutional statements on values) Secular - Churches - Militia Groups Private Institutional Monasteries - Town councils - Cities - Guilds s u o i g i l e R 1. a) Classical ideal and cultural legacy, with 2) Christian value system, morality, and narrative in representation of the human form - Return of the “nude” into visual language - Idealized body to carry symbolic meaning - Observance of decorum in representing the nude – universalizing treatment b) Non-gratuitous, appropriate subject matter: Biblical or classical (David, Hercules, heroes from the Bible and Myth) 2. Application of stylistic conventions which depersonalize the subject (stylist idealization. - Informed by scientific, objective, reason based investigation (observation, dissection) Pollaiuolo: Battle of the Nudes • Brothers: interested in mechanics of body, dissection • Became a template for other artists • All’antica – in the manner of the ancients o Mind set Nudity defined the notion of an ideal human (Ancient Greeks) • Nude because they are perfect – nothing to hide • Contrapposto – counter poise o Re-aligns body; moves gravity o Michelangelo’s David San Lorenzo • Embodies fusion • Chapel for the Medici’s • Latin Cross Plan • Harmonious architecture • Old Sacristy Vitruvius • Progressive approach to architecture • Historian • Theory, meaning Palazzo Medici – Riccardi Michelozzo • First of its kind • Home of Medici family • Business building Rustication • Deliberately making something look rough Duomo • Brunelleschi designed the dome – inspired by the Pantheon • Roman’s created concrete o Method was lost after the fall of the empire ▪ Wasn’t found again until 18 century • Brunelleschi found his idea with gothic architecture • Heavy walls – directed weight downwards and outwards o Self-supporting masonry – material cohesion • Baptistery – central to Florentine mind set o Everyone was baptized there o Doors ▪ #1 done by Pisano in 1336 – focused on Life on St. John the Baptist (sponsored by guild)(patron saint of Florence and the Sheep’s Wool Guild) ▪ #2 done by Ghiberti in 142 ▪ #3 also by Ghiberti in 1452 – “Gateway to Paradise” • Ghiberti was more established, credible ▪ Like a book unfolding o Commissions for doors was advertised – competitions were held o Bronze paneled on oak doors ▪ Quatrefoil (framing device) Schiacciato • Varying carving depths to show distance Orsanmichele • Middle age grainery – grain merchants • Guilds were going to come together to reno • Loggia o Semi covered opening • 14 century – decided to make it into a church • Pisano started • Signoria – forced guilds to finance it • Different sculptors commissioned by guilds to carve their patron saints • Nanni di Banco – guys who represent the guild o Martyr’s – patron saint on wood work and stone guild’s ▪ Killed as a group – refused to make an image of a Roman God ▪ Di Bianco trying to show historical accuracy ▪ Contrapposto ▪ Predella links them to the relevancy of why they are there Brunelleschi: Ospedale degli Innocenti • Orphanage • First charitable institution in Europe • Church was the only charitable institution at the time • Silk merchant and gold smith guilds funded o No religious ties • Very close to the Duomo o Pilgrims come and see the Duomo, would notice good charitable Christian’s act • Loggia – good example o Height of the columns, same distance to and wall and in between the columns – essentially 9 cube shaped sections • Rota – stone cylinder where people could put their babies Master piece – what was submitted for application to the guild Andrea Mantegna • Employed by a family – not by a guild • Camera Picta o Ludovica Gonzago in charge of Mantua o Misleading work o Mantegna became quite wealthy o Renovated tower • Married a Bellini sister Trompe l’oeil – Fool the Eye • Tricks the mind • A whole range of visual techniques to fool the eye • Prank • Foreshortening Florence – Botticelli (the end of the beginning) • Venus • Primavera • Mythical, inspired by ancient tales • Non-Christian, very large pictures not very common • Very fashionable • Religious vs. classical ideals • Famed among aristocrats – the Medici • A lot of church work • A lot of mythical themes Millefiore = 1000 flowers (tapestries) • Unicorn – symbol of pureness, elusive, wild o Virginity o Morality Flemish works – visual stimulus was what Botticelli was after • Uses sculptures for body form not actual people o Reference to classical antiquity • Primavera – commissioned as a wedding gift for Medici cousins Girolamo Savanarola • Monk, seriously pious, spiritual leader Fanatic, medieval fundamentalist o Doomsday prophet o Turned Florence into fundamental theist state o Claimed to have visions o Preached against worldliness (culture) ▪ Enemies of Christianity o Florence in trouble – last decade of 15 century o Basically became ruler of Florence ▪ Spiritualistic tyrant - No money for artists - Medici were ousted in 1496 o No real government - Artists leave Florence o Turn of the century 1497 – Annual Carnivale – period before Easter • Savanarola turned a speech into a frenzy • Bonfire of Vanities • Forced participation o Burning in front of the piazza • Very critical of everything including Papacy – by so doing undermining himself Pope Alexander the Sixth – Borgias • Upset by Savonarola’s crossing the church • Very quickly prosecuted the monk • Charged monk with heresy o Excommunicated – automatic death sentence Burned at stake 1498 ▪ Machiavelli • Nobody should start a revolution thinking they can control it After the incident Botticelli goes back to normal technique – distinctly medieval • What he was producing before Venice – La Serenissima – Serenissima Republica di Venezia (“Most Serene Republic of Venice”) Venice • Truly an oligarchy (doge) • Obeyed one rule – money • Close connection with middle east • Literally a man-made city • Cultural diversity • First to start supplying artists with supplies o Montagne bought supplies from Venice Gentile & Giovanni Bellini • Prominent artists • Religious works • Gentile – more worldly • Giovanni – more plugged in Leonardo da Vinci – The Last Supper • Geography of room – important • Conceived as visual conception • Subject matter o Meditative content – holy meal – last meal where Christ established holy mass • Very humanistic representation • Reconstruction (based on combined info from original and copies) o Mixture of oil and fresco painting ▪ Not very effective ▪ 2 copies made in early 1500’s • Composition – illusionistic extension of real space o Historic meal • Mathematical and thematic center o It all transpires around Jesus o Apostles worked up into very humanistic, psychological response – deals with this from our perspective ▪ Split up into groups of three representing different kinds of emotion ▪ Judas not separated – not obviously separated • Lighting o Practical – consistent conditions o Spiritual – Christ as “light of the world” • Lunette over Christ’s head in architecture Jacopo Tintoretto – Last Supper (1592-94) • Overall impact and purpose foreshadows what happens next in the renaissance • Emotional drama – religious transformative experience o Presbytery – church of San Giorgio Maggiore Tintoretto – high renaissance artist • From Venice • Multi-disciplinarian – played instruments • Designed theatrical costumes • Witty and pleasant except when it came to his art • Introverted – quite secretive • Worked very quickly – very different end results • Characteristics o Muscular figures o Dramatic gestures o Dynamic movement (narrative, formal, compositional) o Bold use of perspective o Highly dramatic 2 earlier versions of the last supper • Subject matter and content o Revelation o Reality – physical and human psychological o Moody, dark, emotionally loaded scene o Physical reality – joined by super natural figures o Christ still at the center ▪ Offering bread to the apostle o Closed claustrophobic space Leonardo’s much more static – one single primary light source. Tintoretto’s much more complex – multiple light sources – real and supernatural; smoke from lamp turns into angels; Christ alternative lighting; dramatic diagonal Lippo Memmi (13 century) • 1475-80 • Obvious which one the betrayer is going to be Sfumato (da Vinci) • Italian words that translates to smoky; vanishing smoke • Form of chiaroscuro • Atmosphere appears dense • Technique used on Madonna of the Rocks and the Mona Lisa Mona Lisa • Rejected by donor • Leonardo got stuck with it • Florentine noble woman after the birth of her second child • Painting meditation of the inner chasm of the mind • Landscape – fantastical world o Actual real work elements – rock, water o Organic and cosmic nature of things • Eyebrows removed after o “configuration of real woman” o Contemporary view of how she should have looked o Hairlessness was a feature of prostitutes in brothels in Constinople • “geography”/surface of the body integrated into the background Pope Julius II • Giuliano della Revere • Bring back something of the lost glory of the state • Rebuilding of basilica commemorating where St. Peter was buried o Constantine built the original one o Donata Bromonta – design used ▪ Greek cross shaped – centrally planned o Structure no longer recognized as Bromante piece • Julius know as warrior Pope Raphael • Easy going – opposite from Michelangelo • Women loved him, charming • Stanza della Segnatura • High profile artist in Rome • Spezzatura – effortless elegance, ease of manner o Something about you that compensates for everything else Papal Apartments – Library • Place of decision making • Decorative scheme of room already sort of pre-set o Theology o Philosophy o Poetry o Law – Juris Prudence • Corresponding quadrants on roof with pictures on walls Disputa – triumph of religion, triumph of philosophy Presence of God (“book ends”) • School of Athens o All sorts of philosophers, mathematicians, etc. o Earthly –body of Christ in point of vanishing o School of Athens all about the grid, math, knowledge Plato, Aristotle = flanking vanishing point *** Michelangelo • *** The construction of the “Artist” and the idea of “genius” (possible essay question) o Pieta o David o Sistine Chapel • Genius o Inherently a male thing – the idea of superior achievement • “The Arrival of Perfection” o Vasari treats his arrival as a divine thing Michelangelo’s Pieta – first Roman Commission • Commissioned by a Flemish cardinal – as a tomb marker • With other pieta’s – distortion is meant to play with the emotions • Michelangelo’s still distorted but it works o Balanced, harmonious o Conveys perfection and beauty • Christ and Virgin both appear youthful and peaceful • Element of dogma • Devotion comes from the mind • Michelangelo to create something out of nothing Michelangelo’s David • Convey beauty, perfection – used idealized body types • Narrative has to create plausibility • Florentine’s identify with David – why it connects with the Florentine psyche • Political sculpture • Relaxed pose suggests power – Kinetic energy Michelangelo’s Last Judgement • Sistine Chapel Ceiling – 1508-1512 • Last Judgement 1536-1541 • Commissioned to do ceiling by Julius II o Julius – fiscal conservative o Gets shit done; had a vision ▪ Reputation ▪ Church of San Pietro in Vincoli (1505) • Last judgement sense not rare o Reminders for loyal and faithful on pilgrimage that they are on the right path o Based on scenes from the end of the Bible ▪ Matthew 21-:30, return of Christ ▪ Christ turned into a Pagan God o Humanistic celebration of God • Political crisis that will change the borders of Europe and the course of history • Criticism for lack of decorum o Nudity, the lack of description of Biblical content ▪ Important sacred subjects have to be represented in a certain way ▪ “…most disgraceful that in so sacred a place there should have been depicted all those nude figures…” ▪ Michelangelo showing off • Deviation from dogmatic truth (e.g. depiction of hell – Hades) – not Christian hell o Charon –Ferrier of lost souls o Styx o Gate Keeper – Minos = Biagio da Cesena • Daniele da Voletrra “Il Braghettone” – the britches maker – had to drawer clothes over all of the exposed genitals • St. Blaise – head chiseled out, had been originally looking down Venice • Giorgione and Titian - colleagues taught to paint in the same way – problematic for art historians • Ensures a quality control and each workshop a signature look Giorgione: The Tempest (1530) • Scene evades purpose of interpretation • Visual enigma that Venetian consumers like • Landscape dominates • Venetians living on top of one another – very rich with very poor o Nostalgic desire for the countryside • “…the small landscape with the tempest, the gypsy woman and the soldier.” • Small picture = would have helped interpret who would have bought it • Cabinet picture – small easel paintings, in oil, for private wealthy individuals who contemplate intellectual content – before the idea of museums – private collections o “cabinet of curiosities” Poesie – same word for literary works – “pastoral” • Represents idealized picture of rural life, naturalism, innocence, explored in poetry and imagery • From the point of view of shepherds o Sense of nostalgia o Imagine point of view o Idealized view of nature o Explore tensions between nations and art Titan – Pastoral • Likely started by Giorgione • Can’t read literally – prompts allegorical meaning • Fantasy vs. ideal o Women figures of inspiration Titian – the Grandmaster of Venetian art • Turned painting into a commodity • In high demand – waiting list • Turned production into a mail order business Titian – the reintroduction of the erotic nude • Seducer through subject matter • Giorgione’s is more allegorical • Titian’s suggests eroticism, morally questionable o Iconography suggests that she is Venus • Commissioned by the Duke of Urbino – March 1538 • Nudity was granted permissible as long as it was appropriate • Subject matter – maybe Bible, classical myth o Justify the nudity Aesthetic Distance – formally using stylistic devices • De-personalize the person • De-sex the subject • Has to be idealized • Not quite life like – smooth perfectly flawless o Nothing to make you think of anyone in particular The “nude” in Visual Language • Idealized body to carry symbolic meaning • Observance of decorum in representing the nude – universalizing treatment o Non-gratuitous, appropriate subject matter, pretext of a didactic message: Biblical or Classical (e.g. David, Hercules, Samson, Bathsheba, Diana, Aphrodite/Venus, heroes and heroines from the Bible and mythology) o Application of stylistic conventions which depersonalize and de-sex the subject (stylistic idealization) ▪ Encourage disinterested (not uninterested) viewing Venus of Urbino • Literally a picture of a naked girl • Artist used a lot of iconographic details o Roses – Venus and Virgin Mary o Myrtle – symbol of marital harmony; domesticated femininity o Large chests – cassone – marriage chests ▪ Commissioned to build and decorate ▪ The pair of them constitutes marriage • Legitimacy o Dog = fidelity o Elements of carnal desire have been subdued Andrea Palladio • Architect • From Vicenza – moved to Venice • Very good understanding of classical theatre Vitruvius: Ten Looks on Architecture • Reanalyze the technical tool of ancient architecture • Study of classical theatre design • Adaptation to contemporary use • Teatro Olympic Vicenzo o Indoor theatre o Open air effect o False perspective – illusionistic map making Church of San Giorgio Magorie • Inspiration from the Pantheon • Pediment – two overlapping facades of different height and width • Devoid of colour • By renaissance standards very minimalist • Massive proportions • Large compound piers • Round Roman arches • Corinthian pilasters and engaged columns • Combines the basilica with a cruciform plan (added transepts) • Central dome over the crossing Palladio Villa Rotunda (Capra) • Palladian architecture • No agricultural function • Purely a recreation statement • Fits with the dynamic landscape Hieronymous Bosch • Henrik of Nasseau • Garden of Earthly Delights • When closed – grisaille, landscape – could be 3 day of earth; during the flood • Could have heretical meanings o Adamites – pretty exotic ideas • Chronological meditation of progressing through the Garden of Eden to the apocalypse • Relationship with alchemy • In hell – all of the worldly pleasures become forms of torture • Eggs = rebirth, resurrection o In hell – empty promise Ergotism • St. Anthony’s fire • Itchy, burning sensation • Essentially poison – rye, rye products St. Anthony • Patron saint of people who suffer from ergo toxicity • Redemptive value in suffering • Dual suffering of Christ • Shrine on inside carved by Nikolaus Hagenauer *** Albrecht Durer • Huge impact on culture • Important link with Italy • Internalized ideal of what it is to be an artist • Believed fine arts belong with liberal arts • Branding himself • “The Four Books on Human Proportion” • Branding an artistic personality Markantonio Raimondi • Ripped of Durer’s prints • Durer – most often copied renaissance artist • Spreading of reputation due to replicas of prints o Artists started copying them • Raimondi – stunned by style, technique o Bought up as many prints and copied them, sold them as “originals” • Up until this time, artists were copying each other • Durer went to court in 1510, sued Raimondi o Only succeeded to prevent him for using his monogram o Placing restrictions on the sale of such prints o Trademark violations, not a violation of artists moral right of intellectual property o Allow buyer to know which was original and which was not – affects pricing Forgeries • Albrecht Durer vs. Wolfgang Kuffner o Kuffner sawed portrait in half, copied painting onto back, sold original (1799) Print Making • Woodcuts and Engraving (pg 591-592); Etching (pg 748) • Intaglio – image bearing surface • Woodcut – carved into a wooden block o Very old, only arrived in Europe in 14 century o Thought to have originated in Asia in 5 century AD • Etching – also done on copper – can use acid to manipulate image o Copper covered in bitumen, design etched into that; put into acid bath, print comes out clean Artistic Temperament • Durer’s four apostles o Produced from Nuremburg city council o Religious subject, secular work o John, Peter (should be in the foreground), Mark, Paul o Colour associates though to equal human emotions Hippocrates – what determines human personalities? • Four humors – physical state and state of mind o Sanguine – extreme extroverts; colour represented by red o Choleric – unpleasant, violent; colour yellow o Phlegmatic – lethargic, tranquil; colour green o Melancholic (artists) – prone to extremes, sentimental, color black. “manic depression” Plato said these people would be loaded
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