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BIOL332 (2)
Lecture

BIOL 332 Summary of Required Readings

3 Pages
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Department
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
BIOL332
Professor
Anne Mc Intosh

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Required Readings Summary
Lecture Two
Human Activity Mediates Trophic Cascade Caused By Wolves
Hebblewhite
Banff national park.
Wolves recolonized in 1986.
Human activity divided the community into high wolf areas and low wolf
areas.
Elk population density diverged over time in the two treatments.
Female elk survived more often in low elk areas.
Higher recruitment without wolves.
Wolf exclusion decreased aspen recruitment.
Where there is more elk, there are fewer beavers.
Support the wolf-caused trophic cascade hypothesis.
Recolonization of wolves had a substantial direct effect on elk
demography.
Predictions made by the trophic cascade hypothesis are supported.
Believed that top down trophic impacts were more significant.
Elk compete with beaver for willow.
Management based on trophic impact of large carnivores has support.
Lecture Three
On Classifying Interactions Between Populations
Abrahams
Critical of current way of classifying interactions.
Thinks a simple (+,-) style excludes many interactions and shapes
ecologists world views.
Believes we need to define indirect and direct effects.
Ambiguity problem changing population density, growth rate, etc. can
all change the interaction between species.
The effects on individual fitness do not necessarily have the same effect on
population growth or size.
Signs do not provide adequate information about the range of interactions
that may occur.
Inadequate classification may have also played a role in biasing what
ecologists study.
World’s diversity makes it impossible to create a perfect classification.
Prevent current scheme from distorting perception of the natural world.

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Description
Required Readings Summary Lecture Two Human Activity Mediates Trophic Cascade Caused By Wolves Hebblewhite  Banff national park.  Wolves recolonized in 1986.  Human activity divided the community into high wolf areas and low wolf areas.  Elk population density diverged over time in the two treatments.  Female elk survived more often in low elk areas.  Higher recruitment without wolves.  Wolf exclusion decreased aspen recruitment.  Where there is more elk, there are fewer beavers.  Support the wolf-caused trophic cascade hypothesis.  Recolonization of wolves had a substantial direct effect on elk demography.  Predictions made by the trophic cascade hypothesis are supported.  Believed that top down trophic impacts were more significant.  Elk compete with beaver for willow.  Management based on trophic impact of large carnivores has support. Lecture Three On Classifying Interactions Between Populations Abrahams  Critical of current way of classifying interactions.  Thinks a simple (+,-) style excludes many interactions and shapes ecologists world views.  Believes we need to define indirect and direct effects.  Ambiguity problem – changing population density, growth rate, etc. can all change the interaction between species.  The effects on individual fitness do not necessarily have the same effect on population growth or size.  Signs do not provide adequate information about the range of interactions that may occur.  Inadequate classification may have also played a role in biasing what ecologists study.  World’s diversity makes it impossible to create a perfect classification.  Prevent current scheme from distorting perception of the natural world. Lecture Three Conceptual Synthesis in Community Ecology Vellend  Patterns in community ecology are influenced by only selection, drift, speciation, and dispersal.  Organizing the material of community ecology according to this
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