BIOL 332 Summary of Required Readings

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Anne Mc Intosh

Required Readings Summary Lecture Two Human Activity Mediates Trophic Cascade Caused By Wolves Hebblewhite  Banff national park.  Wolves recolonized in 1986.  Human activity divided the community into high wolf areas and low wolf areas.  Elk population density diverged over time in the two treatments.  Female elk survived more often in low elk areas.  Higher recruitment without wolves.  Wolf exclusion decreased aspen recruitment.  Where there is more elk, there are fewer beavers.  Support the wolf-caused trophic cascade hypothesis.  Recolonization of wolves had a substantial direct effect on elk demography.  Predictions made by the trophic cascade hypothesis are supported.  Believed that top down trophic impacts were more significant.  Elk compete with beaver for willow.  Management based on trophic impact of large carnivores has support. Lecture Three On Classifying Interactions Between Populations Abrahams  Critical of current way of classifying interactions.  Thinks a simple (+,-) style excludes many interactions and shapes ecologists world views.  Believes we need to define indirect and direct effects.  Ambiguity problem – changing population density, growth rate, etc. can all change the interaction between species.  The effects on individual fitness do not necessarily have the same effect on population growth or size.  Signs do not provide adequate information about the range of interactions that may occur.  Inadequate classification may have also played a role in biasing what ecologists study.  World’s diversity makes it impossible to create a perfect classification.  Prevent current scheme from distorting perception of the natural world. Lecture Three Conceptual Synthesis in Community Ecology Vellend  Patterns in community ecology are influenced by only selection, drift, speciation, and dispersal.  Organizing the material of community ecology according to this
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