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Education - Psychology
Alexander Hamilton

Education Psychology Notes Dylan Feist Chapter Six: Behavioral Learning Theory Learning – relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that occurs as a result of experience. Behavioral theory – emphasizes the relationship between the environment and behavior. Individual differences reflect different histories. Cognitive viewpoint – includes constructivist theories. It maintains that the individual plays the key role in learning. Sociocultural viewpoint –stresses the nature of the environment and its relationship to behavior, with an emphasis on the community’s history and experience. Behavioral Learning Theory  Proposes that learning occurs through a process of contiguity, which is a condition in which two events occur at the same time. Classical conditioning – association of automatic responses with new stimuli.  Unconditioned stimulus – a stimulus that, without prior learning, produces an automatic physiological response.  Unconditioned response – a behavior that is produced in response to a stimulus without prior learning.  Conditioned stimulus – with experience, it produces a learned or acquired response.  Conditioned response – is linked to a particular stimulus through conditioning by being paired to the stimulus. Associationist theories – depend on contiguity. Operant learner – actions by a learner which influence the learning of a new behavior. Law of Effect – behavior that produces a good effect tends to become more frequent while behavior that produces a bad effect is less frequent. Reinforcer – a consequence of behavior that increases behavior.  Positive enforcer – any event that, when given, increases the frequency of a behavior.  Negative enforcer – any event that, when removed, increases the frequency of a behavior. Reward – anything given in return for another person’s service of achievement. Schedules of Reinforcement  Continuous reinforcement – provided after every performance.  Interval schedule – schedule based on time.  Ratio schedule – based on number of behaviors performed.  Variable schedules cannot be predicted. Punishers – consequence of behavior that weakens or decreases behavior.  Positive punisher – when given, decreases the frequency of a behavior.  Negative punisher – when removed, it decreases the frequency of a behavior.  Side effects: o Teaches aggression, produces negative emotions, undermines the quality of interpersonal relationships, and exacerbates misbehavior. Discriminative stimuli – antecedent cues that allow the learner to predict the likelihood of reinforcement.  Antecedent cues set the stage for a behavior to happen. Then, a consequence occurs as a result of the behavior. Student’s generally respond better to positive controls and poorly to negative controls. Increased diversity between teachers and students results in differences in definitions of desirable and undesirable behaviors. Shaping – reinforcement of gradual approximations of the desired behavior. Incentive – an environmental event that attracts a person to a particular course of action.  Can include a smile, a prize, or a promise of good things to come, amongst other things. Prompts – physical, verbal, or other assists that help a person perform a desired behavior that he or she would be unlikely to perform without such assistance.  Once a behavior has been prompted and performed, then positive reinforcement can be used to strengthen it. Positive reinforcers – the idea is for the student to learn that the particular behavior was desired. Genuine praise is often used to great effect.  Incentives, rewards, and enforcers can undermine intrinsic motivation, interfere with learning, and hinder autonomous self-regulation. Decreasing undesirable behaviors  Verbal reprimands – brief statements that draw attention to undesirable behaviors.  Response cost – a consequence (often visual) of performing the undesirable behavior causes a reduction.  Differential reinforcement – when the undesirable behavior occurs, the teacher first identifies the undesirable behavior, and then encourages the desired behavior. When the desired behavior occurs, the teacher provides a positive reinforcer.  Inductive reasoning – encouraging students to think and learn about their behavior and how it affects others. The teacher plays the constructivist role of counselor and avoids the negative role of punisher.  Observational learning – if a teacher knows an undesired behavior will occur, they can take steps to prevent it from occurring, perhaps by role modeling what she expects.  Scaffolding/Tutoring – teachers assist students efforts to learn desirable behaviors. It often involves the use of prompts and behavioral supports. Teachers want to encourage effective self management to place the responsibility onto the student. Students need to learn to set their own goals, provide self-instruction, monitor their progress, perform a self-evaluation, and apply self-consequences. The Fundamental Task of Classroom Management  Is to create an inclusive, supportive, caring, engaging, and challenging community in which students engage in desirable, prosocial behavior.  Teachers can use contracts, group contingencies, or other techniques to do this. Influences of BLT on Instruction  Mastery Learning – all students can achieve a set of educational objectives with appropriate instruction and enough time to learn. o Meta-analysis – a quantitative review and summary of research on a topic. o Corrective-feedback – partial feedback supports progress and encourages learning.  Instructional Technology o CAI – computer aided instruction o Until technology advances, indivualization of learning cannot occur. Limitations of BLT  Cannot adequately explain complex learning.  Relies on tangible enforcement or reward, which may actually decrease motivation and performance. Chapter Seven: Cognitive Theories of Learning The cognitive approach to learning explores how individual differences in knowledge and experience influence the way we interpret the environment and what we learn. Three main types:  Exogenous Constructivism – constructed knowledge that mirrors information in the environment. The learner constructs knowledge by learning to represent the structures that are present in the environment.  Endogenous Constructivism – construction of new knowledge structures from existing structures, rather than from the environment.  Dialectical Constructivism – the theory that considers knowledge to lie in continual interaction between the individual and its environment. Example: Vygotsky. Information Processing Model  Perception – the meaning attached to sensory information.  Feature analysis – identifying the component features of objects and building a representation of the object from them.  Bottom-up processing – a process in which a stimulus is analyzed into its components, then assembled into a recognizable pattern, also known as feature analysis.  Top-down processing – a type of perception in which a person uses what she knows about a situation to recognize a pattern.  Gestalt Principles – figure-ground, proximity, continuity, closure, and similarity.  Attention – focus that is selective and limited. o Filter theory – the brain sifts through all the stimuli. o Attenuation model – reduce attention from one source to another. o Capacity model – concerned with the amount of mental effort needed to perform a task. o Automaticity – the ability to perform a task without having to think much about it. o Controlled processes – cognitive processes that require conscious attention.  Sensory Buffer and Short-Term Memory o Sensory memory – brief memories associated with various senses. o Short-term memory – a temporary memory storage. o Maintenance rehearsal – a cognitive process in which one repeats information to keep it in working memory. o Elaborative rehearsal – a way of remembering information by connecting it to something the one already knows. o Chunking – the grouping of bits of data into larger, meaningful units. o Decay – loss of memories because information is not used. o Interference – loss of deficiency of memories because of the presence of other information. o Primacy – heard first. o Recency – just heard. o Serial position effect – a phenomenon in which the likelihood of information being recalled depends on its position in a list.  Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory o Working memory – a limited memory system that includes both storage and manipulation functions. o Central processor – directs and monitors attention, thinking, judging, and decision making. o Multiple modalities – various senses  Long-Term Memory o Episodic memory – long-term memory of particular places and events in a person’s life. o Semantic memory – the memory a person has for meaning. o Declarative knowledge – factual knowledge that can be expressed through verbal exchange, books, Braille, or sign language. o Declarative memory – memory for factual or experiential information. o Procedural memory – memory for how to do things.  Parts of the Brain o Hippocampus – plays a key role in the storage of new memories. o The hippocampus and surrounding rhinal cortex are the most important areas for the consolidation of memory. o Frontal lobe – important for memory as well. o Amygdala – negative emotions. o Proposition – the smallest unit of knowledge that can be verified.  Schemas and Scripts o Schema – the basic structure for organizing information. o Propositional network – a set of interconnected pieces of information that contains knowledge for the long term. o Script – a schema for the sequence of events in common events, such as ordering food at a fast-food restaurant. o Mental model – internal representation of external reality. o Story grammar – the typical structure of a category of stories. o Levels of processing theory – a theory that asserts that recall of information is based on how deeply it is processed.  Encoding, Retrieval, and Forgetting o Procedural knowledge – knowledge about how to perform a task. o Conditional knowledge – knowledge that guides a person in using declarative and procedural knowledge. o Distributed practice – practice that is interspersed by unequal intervals. This leads to better long-term retrieval. o Massed practice – intense practice for a single period of time, which leads to forgetting long term. o Elaboration – a process through which we add and extend meaning by connecting new information to existing knowledge in long-term memory. o Mnemonic strategies – strategies for remembering “nonmeaningful” information by making it meaningful. o Pictorial mnemonics – interactive images that combine pictorial and verbal elements. o Graphical Organizer – a visual display of verbal information. These include concept maps, mind webs, and knowledge maps.  Most students who need concepts such as these are least willing to try them. o Recognition memory – memories are cued, then recognized in long-term memories. o Recall – information is retrieved directly from long-term memory. It is generated without cues. o Spread of Activation – the retrieval of bits of information on the basis of their relatedness to each other. Remembering one piece of information stimulates the recall of associated knowledge. o Interrogating memory is done by using our knowledge of categories or relationships. o Forgetting occurs as a result of interference of decay. When one node of a network is triggered, related nodes are also triggered as activation spreads along the links to them.  Categorization is another way in which we narrow the range of information available to us. It helps to reduce complexity, identify objects, devote less effort to learning, decide what actions are appropriate, and order and relate classes of objects and events. o Concepts – an abstraction with which a person categorizes objects, people, ideas, or experiences by shared properties. o Conjunctive rule – uses the relationship and. o Disjunctive rule – uses the or. o Conditional rule uses the relationship if-then. o Biconditional rule – the conditional rule applies in both directions. Example: if the object is red, then it must be square. o Criterial attributes – attributes that must be presented for an instance to be a member of a particular category. o Abstraction – the process of including recurring attributes and including nonrecurring attributes. o Jerome Bruner:  Reception tasks – students develop hypothesis about the nature of the target concepts, revising and altering the hypotheses when the data do not fit.  Selection tasks – students are shown a positive instance of a concept and are then asked to pick out another instance of that concept.  Focus gambling – learner focuses on one attribute and gambles that it is the correct one.  Simultaneous scanning – learner keeps all attributes in mind. The concern is that the problem becomes too complex.  Successive scanning – learner tests a single hypothesis and persists until it has been proven wrong. o Teaching Concepts  Overgeneralization – inclusion of a nonmember of a category or class in that category of class.  Undergeneralization – The erroneous exclusion of some instances from a category or group.  Natural categories – real-world categories.  Prototype – the best representative of a category.  Graded membership – the extent to which an object or idea belongs to a category. Metacognition  Metacognition is the process of thinking about thinking. It includes knowledge of oneself as a learner, knowledge of strategies for success, and knowledge of when one should use those strategies.  It has three basic components: planning, monitoring, and evaluating. Self-Explanation  Students can use self-explanations to test their comprehension of the material.  It creates extra pathways for retrieving information. Reasoning and Argumentation  Argumentation – the process of taking a position, providing reasons for the position, and presenting counterarguments.  It helps students understand content, increase interest and motivation, improve problem-solving skills, and increase argumentation skills.  Requires high quality discourse. Problem Solving  Problems have an initial state, a desired state, and a pathway to get there.  Algorithms – a systematic and exhaustive strategy for solving problems.  Heuristic – a rule of thumb or shortcut for solving a problem. o Means-end analysis – a strategy for reducing the distance between the initial and the goal state in problem solving. o Cognitive rigidity – lack of flexibility in thinking. o Functional fixedness – being able to consider only the typical function of an object. Transfer  Transfer – the ability to use previously learned skills or information in a new context.  Low road transfer – the automatic application of previously learned skills.  High road transfer – deliberate application of previously learned strategies or knowledge to a new problem.  Positive transfer – successful application of prior knowledge or skill to a new context.  Negative transfer – interference of prior learning with new learning.  Near transfer – problems are similar to one another.  Far transfer – problems are quite varied. Chapter Eight: Social Constructivism and Learning in Community Social Learning Theory  Learning from others through vicarious experience.  Main characteristic is efficiency.  Vicarious reinforcement – if someone else is reinforced for a behavior, the likelihood of the observer engaging in that activity is increased.  Observational learning – learning by observing other individuals. o Acquisition phase and performance stage. o Shaping and prompting is required for the behavior to be performed well. o Observer must see behavior as useful. o Model must be similar to the observer. o Cognitive apprenticeship – an instructional strategy in which the learner acquires knowledge by modeling activities of the teacher and is coached by the teacher.  Inhibitory/Disinhibitory Effects – model does something that either inhibits or disinhibits the previously acquired behavior.  Response Facilitation Effects – The model may inspire the learner to perform a behavior that he or she already knows. Conditions Necessary for Observational Learning  Attention – learner must attend to the important features of a models behavior in order to learn from it.  Retention – must retain the information.  Production – practice and feedback improve performance.  Motivation – learner must be motivated. Social Constructivism and Sociocultural Theory  Dialectical relationship – a relationship in which the participants have mutual influence on one another or in which the actor changes the environment in some way and that changed environment subsequently changes the actor.  Emphasizes social participation, authentic tasks in which learning is embedded, and tools to support learning.  Social participation.  Integration of new knowledge with existing knowledge.  Authentic tasks – tasks that are connected to the real world.  Identification with a community group.  Collective efficacy – a jointly held belief that community is effective when working together.  Affordance – a property of a tool or artifact that allows a person to act in a particular way that would not be possible without the tool. o Example: calculators The Role of Experience  Instruction is most effective when it takes into account student’s previous experiences and interests.  Students are more likely to be motivated when the content of instruction is personally relevant and meaningful to them. Scaffolding  The more competent member scaffolds the learning.  A process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which may be beyond his unassisted efforts.  Channeling – providing constraints during the task so that the learner has an increased likelihood of acting effectively.  Two major steps: o Instructional plans must be developed to lead students to deeper knowledge. o Plans must be carried out with support.  Seen as planning, coaching, and fading.  Procedural facilitation – a structured approach to improving student’s use of elements in the writing process.  Assistive technology – any piece of equipment that can improve the functionality of a child with a disability. o Example: text to speech software.  Scaffolding can be especially valuable to students with diverse backgrounds. Instruction Influenced by Social-Constructivist & Sociocultural Theory  Teachers need to value student perspectives, not just understand them.  Cognitive apprenticeships  Reciprocal teaching  Problem-based learning – students work in a collaborative group to solve a complex and interesting problem. o Goals are to engage students in problem solving processes, develop motivation, collaboration skills, and self-directed learning skills. o Teachers have the role of engaging and supporting the students. They must encourage all to participate and to discuss what they are thinking.  Classroom Communities o Students design their own learning environment. o Individual responsibility, participant structures, community of discourse, multiple zones of proximal development, and seeding of new ideas. Learning Out of School  Most time is spent outside of school.  Zoos, museums, libraries, and other institutions.  Social interaction, social norms, etc. characterize these settings.  Personal, sociocultural, and physical contexts characterize learning in these settings.  Often have specific education department.  Many guiding principles to being at a museum (page 281-282). Teaching with Cultural Institutions  Requires appropriate background knowledge.  Show students a location for deeper understanding.  Zoos, art museums, libraries, science, and history museums. Chapter Nine: Motivation to Learn Motivation  Any force that energizes and directs behavior.  The study of motivation is the study of all forces that create and sustain students’ effortful, goal-directed action.  Self esteem is not a crucial motivating force.  Self-efficacy, mastery beliefs, attributes, goals, and self-regulation are cognitive motivational states.  Psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, positive emotions, and achievement strivings are five needs, emotions, and strivings.  Must consider that different types of motivation exist, some types of motivation produce better academic functioning than others, and motivation needs supportive conditions. Self Efficacy  A person’s judgment of how well he or she will cope with a situation, given the skills one possesses and the circumstances one faces.  High self efficacy is not high ability. Consequences of Self Efficacy  Selection of activities – students make choices about what activities to pursue and which environments to spend time in. Students want to spend time in activites that they feel they can cope with or handle.  Effort and Persistence – self efficacy influences how much effort they exert and how long they continue to exert that effort. Self efficacy is a motivational resource that students can fall back on during difficult problems to offset doubt and preserve motivation and effort.  Quality of Thinking and Feeling – allows the student to remain task focused and remain clear-headed in their thinking during stressful episodes. Sources of Self Efficacy  Personal behavior history – memories of what happened in the past when a student tried to carry out the same behavior.  Vicarious experience – students observe peers and models.  Verbal persuasion – pep talks help to assure students that they can cope with the situation at hand.  Physiological states – what the body is telling the student.  Environmental factors – factors such as home environment, culture, and special needs. Mastery Modeling Programs  Empowerment – perceiving the one possesses the knowledge, skills, and beliefs needed to silence doubt and exert control over one’s learning.  In these programs, an expert works with a group of novices to show them how to cope effectively with an otherwise daunting situation. Calibration  An ongoing corrective process in which the person adjusts his or her sense of confidence with a task to reflect most accurately the quality of his most recent performance. Mastery Beliefs (302)  Mastery Belief – extent of one’s perceived control over a success/failure outcome.  Explains student’s motivation to gain control over outcomes.  There are many reactions to failure: o Some see failure as a source of information. o Others see it as a sign of personal inadequacy.  Learned helplessness – the psychological state that results when a student expects that school-related outcomes are beyond her control.  Attribution – an explanation of why an outcome occurred. (301) o Can be either internal or external. Internal means that the outcome is caused by forces in the self, such as effort or ability. External means it comes from the environment. o Can be either stable or unstable. Stable means that the outcome was caused by enduring forces such as intelligence or personality. Unstable attribution means explaining the outcomes as caused by transient forces, such as mood or luck. o Can be either controllable or uncontrollable. Controllable means that the outcome was a result of one’s direct influence, such as effort or strategy. Uncontrollable attribution are explanations that are outside one’s control, such as luck or difficult circumstances. o Intelligence is internal, stable, and uncontrollable. o Luck is external, unstable, and uncontrollable.  Explanatory style – a personality like characteristic that reflects the habitual way that students explain why bad events happen to them. (304) o Optimistic explanatory style – the habitual tendency to explain bad events with attributions that are unstable and controllable. o Pessimistic explanatory style – the habitual tendency to explain bad events with attributions that are stable and uncontrollable.  Learned Helplessness is preventable and reversible. Teachers must understand that it is caused by an unresponsive environment and a pessimistic explanatory style. Hope (306)  Hope is a motivational wish for an outcome that one expects to be fully capable of obtaining.  High self-efficacy and high mastery beliefs.  Highest when there are multiple paths to a goal. Goals (307)  Goal – the object of a student’s ambition or effort.  Difficult, specific goals increase performance.  A difficult goal stimulates more effort.  Specific goals direct attention to tasks and encourage strategic planning.  Implementation intentions – a plan to carry out goal-directed behavior.  Feedback – also called knowledge of results, allows students to keep track of their progress towards a goal. Negative feedback gets students to work harder and positive feedback gets students to set higher goals.  Possible selves – a student’s long-term goal representing what he or she would like to become in the future. They are social in origin and play an important motivational role in the classroom, especially for adolescents.  Achievement goals – what the student is trying to accomplish when facing a standard of excellence. (313) o Standard of excellence – any challenge to the student’s sense of competence that ends with a success/failure interpretation. o Learning goal – focus attention on developing competence and mastering the task. They are also called mastery goals. o Performance goals – the intention to demonstrate high ability and prove one’s competence. o A student’s understanding of competence is important in determining what type of achievement goals the student will embrace. o Students with learning goals want feedback that they can use to learn and improve. o Students with performance goals want feedback that they can use to judge their ability and sense of superiority. o A learning goal has a positive and productive way of thinking, while a performance goal has a negative and unproductive way of thinking.  Types of Performance Goals o Performance approach goal – involves striving to show how smart one is and to attain positive judgments from others. o Performance avoidance goal – involves striving to not look stupid and to avoid negative judgments from others.  Multiple Achievement Goals o Students are likely to have both a learning and a performance goal. Self Regulation (318)  The deliberate planning, monitoring, and evaluating of one’s academic work.  Forethought – what one thinks about prior to engaging in a task and prior to receiving feedback about the quality of one’s performance on that task.  Reflection – what one thinks about after engaging in a task and after receiving feedback about the quality of one’s performance on that task. Education Psychology Notes Dylan Feist Chapter Ten: Engaging Students in Learning Motivation is a private experience. Thus, teachers must understand engagement in order to understand motivation Engagement – the extent of a student’s behavioral intensity, emotional quality, and personal investment in a learning activity. Behavioral Engagement – the extend to which a student displays high attention, strong effort, and enduring persistence on a learning activity.  Attention is the student’s concentration and on task focus.  Effort is their investment of a full measure of their capacities in what they are doing.  Persistence refers to the investment of effort over time, even in the face of difficulties. Emotional Engagement – the extent to which a student’s task involvement is characterized by positive emotions, such as interest and enjoyment. Cognitive Engagement – the extent to which a student mentally goes beyond the basic requirements of a learning activity and invests himself in the learning in a committed way. Voice – a students expression of self during a learning activity so as to influence constructively how the teacher presents that lesson. Why Engagement is Important  It makes learning possible.  Engagement predicts how well students fare in school.  Engagement is malleable, meaning certain actions can increase engagement, and improve learning.  Engagement gives teachers the moment to moment feedback they need to determine if their efforts to motivate students are working. Two Approaches to Promoting Motivation and Engagement 1. Unilateral Approach – teacher’s actions have a direct effect on student motivation. The teacher must offer an attractive incentive, which encourages the student to work hard to gain it. The teacher models the appropriate behavior and the students emulate what they see. 2. Dialectical approach – the reciprocal, interdependent, and constantly changing relationship between a student’s motivation and the classroom conditions that support vs frustrate motivation. The logic underlying this is that motivation originates from within the student and the teacher reacts to this motivation. It is founded on three principles of motivation: 1. Students have motivation of their own. 2. Teachers motivate students when they provide classroom conditions that nurture student motivation. 3. How well or how poorly teachers involve and nurture student motivational resources is reflected in the extend of student engagement. Engaging Diverse Learners  Low-income minority students need to feel a sense of belonging or acceptance.  Without a place in school where their interests, abilities and definitions of success are honored, they become unengaged in classroom activities.  Compliance and obedience based approaches fail to elicit emotional quality, cognitive investment, and personal voice. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation  Intrinsic Motivation – the inherent propensity to engage one’s interests and to exercise and develop one’s capacities. It arises out of psychological needs. When students are intrinsically motivated, they have healthy, productive functioning, such as initiative, persistence, creativity, high-quality learning, conceptual understanding of what they are learning, and positive well-being.  Extrinsic Motivation – an environmentally created reason to engage in an action or activity. These reasons may include stickers, certificates, attention, high grades, prizes, food, etc.  Often, intrinsic and extrinsic motivated behaviors look the same. The difference is what energizes and directs the student’s on-task activity. Hidden Cost of Rewards  Hidden Costs of Reward – the unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects that extrinsic rewards have on intrinsic motivation, high-quality learning, and autonomous self-regulation.  Three Hidden Costs: 1. Loss of extrinsic motivation – the promise of a reward sacrifices intrinsic motivation for extrinsic motivation. 2. Interfere with learning – distracts the student from the material being learned in favor of getting the reward. Extrinsically motivated learners prefer success and quick answers over optimal challenge and search for creative solutions. 3. Interferes with development of autonomous self-regulation – after a history of being rewarded, students have difficulty regulating their behavior when not offered rewards for doing their schoolwork.  Intangible prizes, such as praise, typically do not produce hidden costs. Using Extrinsic Motivators Effectively  Cognitive Evaluation Theory – a theory of motivation that explains how external events such as rewards affect students’ psychological needs for autonomy and competence and, hence, their intrinsic motivation.  Extrinsic motivators also need to be informational to support students’ need for competence.  Praise – positive verbal feedback. It helps to nurture competence. It should be used to provide clear, specific, competence-diagnosing feedback. Motivating Students with Intellectual Disabilities  Two characteristics of students with intellectual disabilities: 1. Diminished cognitive capacities 2. Low autonomy  Controlling Motivating Style – a teacher’s enduring tendency to engage students in learning activities by promoting their extrinsic motivation and introjected regulation during the lesson.  Some teachers promote self-determination, such as self-advocacy and decision making, with the goal of empowering them to voice their preferences and choices.  Autonomy can be supported. When it is, it allows students to develop the capacity to regulate their own behavior and display positive outcomes such as engagement, learning, and well-being. Types of Extrinsic Motivation  Three Main Types 1. External Regulation – not at all autonomous 2. Introjected Regulation – somewhat autonomous 3. Identified Regulation – highly autonomous Psychological Needs  Psychological Need – an inherent source of motivation that generates the desire to interact with one’s environment so as to advance personal growth, social development, and psychological well-being. The three psychological needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.  Autonomy – the psychological need to experience self-direction in the initiation and regulation of one’s behavior. o Perceived Locus of Causality – the person’s understanding of whether his or her motivated action is caused by a force within the self (internal) or by some force outside the self (external). o With autonomy – students experience an internal PLOC and a high sense of freedom to choose and regulate their actions. o An autonomy supportive environment is one that supports student autonomy. Teachers work to identify and support student interests, preferences, and strivings.  The opposite is a controlling environment, where behavior modification techniques pressure students to conform to an agenda. o A teachers autonomy-supportive motivating style benefits students’ motivation, engagement and achievement. o Why, then, are teachers so controlling?  Some teachers think controlling strategies are more effective than autonomy supportive strategies.  Teachers feel pressure from above, meaning that performance standards, large classes, time constraints, etc. all promote a controlling style method.  Teachers feel pressure from below, meaning that factors in the classroom, such as apathy and disengagement, promote a controlling style.  Competence – the psychological need to be effective as one interacts with the surrounding environment. o Optimal challenge – moderately difficult tasks fully satisfy the competence need, and difficult tasks generate too much anxiety and frustration for students to enjoy them, even when they successfully solve them. Optimal challenge is the key classroom condition that involves the need for competence. o Positive feedback satisfies competence. Challenge feedback sandwiches are a learning activity that begins with the presentation of an optimal challenge and ends with informational feedback to communicate how well or how poorly one performed. o One problem to challenges is that some students react with anxiety. They view the challenges as fearsome threats. o Failure Tolerance – is the attitude of a teacher who accepts failure and errors as necessary, inherent, and welcome parts of the learning process. It is rooted in the belief that students learn more from their failures than they do from their successes. o Flow – a state of concentration in which students become wholly absorbed in an activity. When challenge matches skill, concentration, involvement, and enjoyment rise as students experience flow.  Relatedness – the psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people. It reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to others and interpersonally involved in warm relationships. o Students look for someone they can relate to in an authentic, caring, and emotionally meaningful way. o Students must perceive that the other person likes them, cares about their welfare, and accepts and values their true self, rather than a façade. o Supporting relatedness is important for two reasons:  First, students who feel related to their classmates, teachers, and school community are more engaged in learning activities.  Second, relatedness to teachers provides the context in which students will internalize their teacher’s values. ARCS  Attention  Relevance  Confidence  Satisfaction The Engagement Model  High engagement arises from the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.  Teachers need to nurture the student’s need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.  When students experience a needs-satisfying classroom, they have a good day. They need to have experienced high levels of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Motivating Students During Uninteresting Lessons  When a task is uninteresting, teachers can either increase valuing or increase interest. o Increasing valuing means ensuring the students understand the lesson’s value. The teacher must take the time to provide the students with a rationale as to why they would engage the uninteresting material. Students who sincerely value a lesson will willingly engage it. o Increasing interest means using strategies which engage interest. One example is creating a challenge or goal to strive for. Thus, the engagement is as much about mastering the challenge/achieving the goal as it is about the uninteresting task itself. Curiosity, Interest, and Positive Affect  The learn something new, students need two thing: new information and the motivation to seek out and learn that information.  Curiosity – is a cognitively based emotion that occurs whenever students experience a gap in their knowledge. It is important because it motivates engagement-rich exploratory behavior. When they are curious, they are more likely to explore and search for knowledge. There are three instructional strategies for inducing curiosity: 1. Guessing and Feedback – a strategy in which the teacher asks students a difficult question, then announce that students’ answers are incorrect to reveal a gap in their knowledge. 2. Suspense – a strategy in which the teacher asks the students to predict an outcome before the student engages in the work that will reveal if their prediction was right or wrong. 3. Controversy – a strategy in which the ideas, conclusions, or opinions of one personal are incompatible with those of another, and the two attempt to reach an agreement. Building Interest  Interest – a topic-specific motivational state that arises out of attraction to a particular domain of activity. It enhances a student’s attention, effort, and learning. o Situational Interest – a topic-specific motivational state the is triggered by an external factor that produces a short-term attraction to the learning activity. o Individual Interest – an enduring disposition in which one develops a clear preference to direct attention and effort towards a particular activity, situation, or subject matter. o When students develop an interest, it is due to classroom activities which involve the needs and preferences of the student. o Interest and knowledge are intimately related; the more knowledge one has about a topic, the more interesting it becomes. Inducting Positive Affect  Positive affect – the mild, subtle, every-day experience of feeling good.  Happy feelings may be the result of an unexpected compliment, making progress on a project, etc.  Students in good moods function much more efficiently and productively than students in a neutral mood. They are more creative, more efficient in their problem solving, more flexible in their thinking, and more thorough in their decision making. Using Technology to Promote Engagement  Teachers can evaluate any piece of technology using the ARCS model: A = Attention (or curiosity, interst) – it refers to whether the technology arouses the learners interst. R = Relevance (or value, identified regulation) – refers to whether the learner perceives the technology to be connected to his personal goals. C = Confidence (or competence) – refers to the extent to which the learner expects to be able to master the learning material. S = Satisfaction (or motivation) – refers to the learner’s intrinsic motivation and reactions to the rewards embedded in the technology.  Overall, will the student find this technology motivating?  Some multimedia can simulate real-world learning environments, which can spark curiosity and stimulate interest. Calming Anxiety, Protecting Self-Worth, and Overcoming Fear of Failure  Disengagement is an intentional decision. Students withhold their effort when they fear they will be evaluated too harshly if they perform poorly.  Shame, criticism, embarrassment, and loss of respect are all risks students feel are associated with attempting success.  Academic standards of excellence are double edged swords: there is a desire to do well and a desire to avoid it and not embarrass oneself. The anticipation of hope, pride, and enthusiasm motivate engagement and anticipation of hear, anxiety, and shame motivates avoidance and disengagement.  Self consciousness reaches a peak during adolescence.  There are three main inhibitions that adolescents express: 1. Anxiety – the unpleasant, aversive emotion that students experience in evaluative settings. Anxious students display effort-withholding, avoidance- based behaviors, such as excuse-making, skipping classes, etc. Classroom conditions that promote anxiety include unrealistic performance expectations, external evaluation, and situations that exceed coping capacities. 2. Self-worth – an evaluation by others of one’s personal worth. They are based on perceptions of ability, perceptions of effort, and performance accomplishments. Adolescents sometimes see high effort as an indicator of low ability. Thus, public displays of academic engagement becomes a threat to self-worth. 3. Self-handicapping – a defensive self-presentation strategy that involves intentionally interfering with one’s own performance so as to provide a face- saving excuse for failure in case one does fail. The goal is to have others disregard ability as a causal factor in one’s poor performance. The benefit is that the self is protected. The problem is that sabotaging one’s effort makes failure more likely.  Self efficacy is the antidote to anxiety.  An incremental self-theory is the antidote to diminished self-worth. The idea is to adopt incremental thinking as opposed to entity thinking.  A mastery goal climate is the antidote to self-handicapping. It places a high value on effort, improvement, and developing one’s competence.  Tolerance for failure is important in reducing these inhibitions that adolescents experience. Failure should be accepted, valued, and prized as inherently useful. Chapter Eleven: Effective Teachers and the Process of Teaching Teaching – the interpersonal effort to help learners acquire knowledge, develop skills and values, and realize their potential.  It is reciprocal by nature.  There are three components of teaching. These include the teacher, the child, and the curriculum. o Teacher – the individual responsible for ensuring the child masters the material. o Child – interests, motivations, current level of knowledge, skill, and abilities. o Curriculum – the content of what the child is to learn and how to communicate the content. Teacher Development Beliefs o Beliefs are propositions that individuals believe to be true. They stem from three main sources: 1. Personal experience – the activities, events, and understandings that are a part of everyday life. 2. Experience with schooling and instruction – the experience that teachers had when they were students. 3. Experience with formal knowledge – knowledge gained from teacher education programs. o Beliefs shape expectations and responses. o Custodial – a term that refers to an approach to classroom management that views the teacher’s role as primarily maintaining an orderly classroom. o Once established, teacher beliefs are highly resistant to change. Types of Knowledge o Content knowledge – knowledge about the subject matter. o Pedagogical knowledge – knowledge about how to teach. o Pedagogical content knowledge – knowledge about how to make subject matter understandable to students (Lee Shulman). o Experiences teachers have a better stock of pedagogical content knowledge than beginning teachers do. Differences Between Experienced and Novice Teachers o Expert teachers do the following:  View the classroom as a collection of individuals instead of a generic whole.  Plan more globally and for longer periods.  Have a more complex view of instructional options.  Run a more smoothly operating classroom.  Evaluate student learning more often and in ways that are more closely related to the content of instruction.  Attribute failure in a given lesson to problems with planning, organization, or execution rather than to disruptive behavior on the part of the students.  Hold complex ideas about the role of students’ existing knowledge and make significant use of it during instruction. o Experience needs to be combined with active reflection. o Teaching experience alone does not make an expert teacher. Teachers’ Self-Efficacy o Teaching efficacy – a teacher’s judgment of, or confidence in, his or her capacity to cope with the teaching situation in ways that bring about desired outcomes. o Strong self-efficacy beliefs about teaching leads to improved student achievement. o Individuals develop self-efficacy through verbal persuasion, personal history, and vicarious experience. o Novice teachers benefit from the experience of mastery, a positive school climate, encouragement and support during difficult times, and strong mentoring by more experienced teachers. o Teachers with high self-efficacy are less likely to refer special needs students for evaluation that are teachers with low self-efficacy. Working in Culturally Different Contexts o Create learning goals and objectives that incorporate multicultural issues. o Ensure that your curriculum and activities include a wide variety of ethnic groups. o Focus on different ethnic groups and their contributions on a rotating basis. o Include examples from different ethnic experiences to explain subject matter concepts, facts, and skills. o Show hoe multicultural content, goals, and activities intersect with subject- specific curricular standards. Planning Instructional Goals o Instructional goal – a statement of desired student outcomes following instruction. They have also been called objectives, overall expectations, achievement targets, desired outcomes, and standards. They can be broad or general, as well. o Educational objectives – explicit statements of what students are expected to be able to do as a result of instruction. o Taxonomy – a classification of objects according to a set of principles or laws. o Blooms taxonomy – a way of organizing educational objectives according to the level of cognitive complexity and thought required. Bloom wanted educators to consider what they wanted to be achieved in their class. He developed a taxonomy that showed what higher order thinking skills looked like. These are skills and abilities that go beyond recall and comprehension, including the ability to apply ideas and concepts, analyze and synthesize information, and evaluate complex information.  Critics of this system argue that analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are either not distinct enough or not very useful is assessing different student’s abilities or progress.  Anderson reorganized Blooms taxonomy:  Knowledge = Remembering  Comprehension = Understanding  Application = Applying  Analysis = Analyzing  Evaluation = Evaluating  Synthesis = Creating Translating Goals and Objectives into Plans o Planning involves setting objectives or goals, choosing how to achieve these goals, making decisions concerning the detail of the approach, making changes as the plan is carried out, and evaluating the plan after it has been carried out in order to be better prepared the next time. o In teaching, there are several layers of plans in order to teach the students a higher function, such as lesson plans vs unit plans. Cross curricular activity may also be included. o The more you plan on something, the more you plan for it. o Lesson plans typically have several different elements, such as objectives, materials needed, description of activities, and assessment procedure. o There are many levels of planning:  Year – statements of the overall approach to the unity that clearly addresses the goals, standards, and objectives set for the class.  Mid-term – typically these consist of course units.  Instructional Units – these typically occur on a weekly basis and it consists of the subunits (or topics) embedded in the unit.  Daily Plans – a guide for day to day activities in the classroom. Beginner teachers typically focus on daily plans more so than experienced teachers. Approaches to Teaching  Strategies are broad approaches to teaching and learning.  Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning focuses on the learning that occurs when a student actively interprets experiences. o Rote Learning – verbatim memorization. The information has little connection to what
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