Lecture Notes Detailed notes of everything covered during lectures. Completely based upon what the Professor said during class; he covers many things which are not in the textbook and are important for tests. Very helpful if you miss a class!

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16 Oct 2011
Music 100 Notes
January 4th 2010
Western music; Western Europe (Germany, France, Italy)
Became the center of excellence
Catholic church centered in Rome, influenced Western culture more than anything
Influenced the way music and literature developed
Created a world dominated by Christianity
Germany important b/c of military power
In modern day, Western music is defined by certain cultural behaviours; one goes to
concert, does not talk, claps at the end
Music is valued as a commodity; traded, bought etc. as such
January 6th 2010
Music is defined as being deliberately humanly organised sound
Things like the sound of birds chirping questionable – the sound alone is not music; but
the fact that humans deliberately recorded it can make it music
Harmonic series is a group of notes tied together naturally; can hear almost all notes in
the series by playing just one
Notes measured by vibrations/second
Ex) Low A = 110 Hz (vibrations/second) Middle A = 220 Hz High A = 440 Hz
A 5th plus a 4th is an octave
One step between notes (Ex. E and F) is called a semi-tone (no sharp/flat between)
Two steps between notes is called a tone (Ex. C and D; C sharp between)
All major scales are the same, all minor scales are different
Rhythm is the displacement of times between notes in a melody
1, 4, 5, 8 are Consonant intervals
2, 7 are Dissonant intervals
5, 4, 8 are Perfect intervals
3 & 6 are Major/Minor
2 & 7 are Major/Minor
January 27th 2010
1640’s, Louis XIV king of France
Absolute monarch (enlightened despot = in power whether the people want him in power
or not)
Upon his death he was pelted with rotten vegetables by the people of France b/c he
almost bankrupted the country
Only appreciated later once it was realized that his plan for France was actually very wise
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Took over France when he was only 6 years old
One vision he had was in line with values at the time; interest in balance, order and
organization, emphasis on scientific understanding and measurement, artists highlighted
contrasting emotions, illusion – the ability to initiate reality artistically – was highly
Rembrandt created “camera obscura” using a room split in half, with the subject on one
side and him in total darkness on the other with only a small hole in the dividing wall;
reflected an upside down image of the person on his canvas (Baroque period)
Palace of Versailles – all political leaders lived here with different levels of power;
created the desire to assassinate one another
Referred to himself as “Le Roi Soleil”
Created ballets for himself to perform in b/c he loved his legs? Lol
Appeared as Apollo (sun God) with elaborate costumes
Members of the court appeared in these ballets also; how talented they were at dance
determined if they got a particular position in parliament
Playing violin was extremely important in this time period because this was what people
danced to
Eventually established orchestras; Musiciens du Roi, Les violins de Roi, Les musiciens
de la chambre
Rich people constantly ate meat, poor people ate grains
Best music did not come out of France, as they were the power country of the time
Best music came from broken countries rather than France, b/c France was under too
much control, only certain composers were allowed to publish music and there were
many limits/laws
Louis XIV created a line of perfumes to cover his stench b/c it was thought to be
improper to wash with water; natives & others regularly fainted when meeting him b/c of
Music in the Baroque period was made very complicated; tried to fool people by making
it seem like the music was going to end, etc.
This theme of trying to fool people showed through art as well
Composer Claudio Monteverdi wrote first famous Opera; wrote a book of madrigals
using particular sounds to suit words & actually make the music sound like what the story
was describing, example lightning, etc. (“word-painting”); used dissonance
L’Artusi wrote that Monteverdi was a terrible composer, etc. b/c of his use of dissonance
– accused of being unaware of rules of music; used dissonance to accentuate emotions
like anger, etc; new idea, as word-painting was previously not acceptable
Monteverdi got together with brother to combat L’Artusi’s accusations by claiming that
he is on the cutting edge, doesn’t haveto obey old outdated rules of music (Prima Prattica
vs. Seconda Prattico); L’Artusi satisfied by this argument
“A certain noble negligence of song” – phrase meaning music is not supposed to
specifically reflect the content of the story, but the higher purpose/bigger picture
In 1607 Monteverdi was asked to write an opera for a wedding along with Alessandro
Striggio, a poet – wrote an opera called L’Orfeo; performed for only 40-50 people;
received fully published opera as a party favour – Monteverdi became famous b/c of this
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