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Lecture 16

PHIL101 Lecture 16: Nov 6, Phil


Department
Philosophy at St Joseph's College
Course Code
PHIL101
Professor
Marie- Eve Morin
Lecture
16

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November 6, 2017 (Monday)
The Development of Society
Hobbes
- Self preservation
Rousseau
- Pity and self love
How did we end up here?
- State of nature is a perfect equilibrium
Development of reason?
- (½ step: tools, short-term association)
We are still in the state of nature but things are starting to change. (our needs are
becoming harder to satisfy)
Realizing that we can work together
No long term bond or obligation that is created/recognizing the advantage with
interacting with others
- If we are in a state of equilibrium, how we came out of this
- Our intelligence comes from the creation of communication/language, as we can
pass it down
- In the state of nature we are different than other animals because as humans we
have perfectibility (capacity to develop reason more than other animals), and the
human being is free unlike other animals that are bound to instinct.
- How do we develop reason?
Reason develops through the activity of our passions/feelings/desires
We would not reason if we could satisfy our needs and desires.
Once we start thinking our passion will create new passions and desires
We start thinking because of difficulty from external forces to achieve our desires
First revolution: Huts And families
- Sedentarity
- Long term associations that create obligations and will change our way of life
- Get more leisure time from gender roles for efficiency
- These measures prepare for the downfall of our descendants that create new
“needs” which makes survival harder
- Leisure items become needs
- Start living outside of ourselves, or how people look at us (now there is mental
pain)
More rivalries
- This is the best time because we are happiest due to the fact that we still have
our individual independence
Dependency makes us listen and dependent on others
Second Revolution: Agriculture and Metallurgy
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