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PERLS104 Lecture Notes - Homophobia, Heterosexuality

Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies
Course Code
Melanie Muise

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Feb 28
To explain why sports around the world have been defined as men’s
activities, why half the world’s population has been ‘excluded’ or
‘discouraged’ through history, and why there have been dramatic increases
in women's participation, we must understand Relationships between sports
and beliefs about masculinity and femininity and homosexuality and
Gender Ideology
Gender ideology is a set of interrelated ideas about masculinity and
Gender is a socially and historically constructed set of power relations
between men and women
Gender in sport maintains many taken for granted assumptions about
masculinity and femininity
Gender is deeply rooted in our understanding about sexual identity
Dominant Gender Ideology
Dominant gender ideology consists of prevailing “common sense” beliefs
about maleness and femaleness
They are never established “once and for all time”
They emerge as people struggle over the meaning and organization of social
Gender ideology from time to time and place to place: social construction
Ideologies of gender change and aren’t fixed or natural
Ideologies are rooted in relations of power in society
Ideals about what a female body should look like have changed over time –
socially constructed values and meanings
Participation and Equity Issues
Participation by girls and women has increased dramatically because of:
1.) new opportunities
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2.) govt equal rights legislation
3.) global womens rights movement
4.) Health and fitness movement
5.) increased media coverage of womens sports
Participation and equity issues: Structure and policy changes and ideological
Girls and women now see a wide range of sport participation images – this
has encouraged dramatic increases in participation
During the 1980’s, symbolic changes were occurring as well. Uni’s abandoned
femnized versions of mens teams names.
7 Reasons for Caution when predicting future participation
1. Budget cutbacks and privatization of sport programs
2. Resistance to govt regulations
3. Backlash among those resent changes that threaten the dominant gender
4. Under-representation of women in decision-making positions in sport
5. Continued emphasis on “cosmetic fitness”
6. Trivialization of women's sports
7. Homophobia and the threat of being labelled “lesbo”
When cuts to a sporting budget are made, feminine aspects are the first to
get cut
Gender Equity Issues
Gender equity issues exist when sport cultures are:
male dominated ( ie. The characteristics of men are THE standards for
judging qualifications)
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