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Sept 27 - Development and Aging.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Sept 27 – Development and Aging Adipose Tissue in Older Adult • Both men and women tend to gain fat during adulthood, but this isn’t inevitable • Increases in trunk fat are notable, but subcutaneous fat on limbs tends to decrease Fat can be a constraint when it decreases ROM Excess fat is stored in lipocytes, which expand Endocrine System • Plays role in regulating growth and maturation through chemical substances called hormones • Excess of deficiency can alter growth Major hormones involved in growth include: • Pituitary growth hormone • Thyroid hormones and • 2 gonadal hormones • We will also talk about the role of insulin • These hormones stimulate protein anabolism (tissue builidng) • Endocrine – neurological feedback loops regulate hormone levels • Each hormone may have a critical role in development at specific phases in life span • insulin plays indirect role, is vital for carb metabolism • hypothalamus is the regulating center for hormones and has a neural and blood connection. It can be stimulated by neurons or through blood. • Pituitary gland secretes GH and TSH, which goes to the thyroid glad to tell it to start producing hormones • Thyroid produces epinephrine and androgens • Testes produce testeosterone and estrogen Growth Hormone • Growth hormone is secreted by anterior pituitary • It is necessary for normal growth • Deficiency can result in growth abnormality • Dwarfism is an example of what can happen if we don't produce enough GH • If we produce too much GH, then we can see gigantism Effects of Abnormal Growth Hormone Secretion • Dwarfism – decreased GH secreteion in children • Gigantism – increased GH secretion in children • Acromegaly – increased GH secretion in adults Hormones can only act on a specific tissue Thyroid Hormones • these are secreted by thyroid gland • they influence whole-body growth • one plays a role in skeletal growth • if we don't have TH, the growth hormone cannot act to its full potential (ex. Wont reach our full potential height) • if we have too low levels of thyroid hormone, this is called hypothyroidism. This is associated with weight gain. Too much thyroid hormone is hyperthyroidism. This will cause high protein catabolism • hypothalamus regulates the anterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary regulates the thyroid gland Gonadal Hormones • influence on growth, sexual maturation (sex organs, secondary sex characteristics) Androgens • secreted by testes (boys), adrenal glands (boys, girls) • hasten epiphyseal growth plate closure (skeletal maturation) • promote growth of muscle mass (adolescence) Estrogen • secreted by ovaries (girls), adrenal cortex (girls, boys) • hastens epiphyseal growth plate closure • promotes accumulation of fat • is it also involved in bone growth • both men and women have testosterone but the levels are different • if someone has a high level of androgens, they will look short and larger amount of muscle mass and a lot of stereotypical male characteristics. • Steroid users will encourage epiphyseal plates to close early and they will not reach their full height • If estrogen is too low, we wont develop enough sex characteristics Insulin • Secreted by the pancreas • Insulin helps circulate and metabolize carbs, and stimulate metabolism of amino acids to build proteins • Stimulates transportation of glucose and amino acids • Helps build tissue • Its presence is necessary because it helps GH function optimally • A deficiency in insulin will decrease protein synthesis and this will be detrimental to growth Endocrine System in Older Adults • imbalance may develop between nervous, endocrine, and immune systems • thyroid disorders are more prevalent • Decreasing gonadal hormone levels are associated with loss of bone and muscle tissue • If this system isn’t operating fully, this increases our risk for disease • Thyroid disorders are common for adults 20-30 • Thyr
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