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Dec 5 - Aggression Continued.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Dec 5 – Aggression Continued Causes/Theories of Aggression 1.) Instinct theory (catharsis Hypothesis) • A means for built-up aggressive drive to be discharged • The id wants to release our inner aggressive drives. • Sigmund Frued theorized that if the expression of aggression is thwarted or a target is unavailable, then a substitute target must be found or the aggression will become internalized resulting in depression of masochism. • Some proponents argue that sport provides a legit social outlet for the expression or release of built up aggression • The core of this theory says we all have a core want to be aggressive. 2.) Frustration – aggression Hypothesis (proposed by John Dollard) • The frustration – aggression hypothesis says that aggression results when people get frustrated and personally meaningful goals are blocked. Frustration induces the aggressive drive (and often fuels anger), which facilitates the aggressive act • When our goals are blocked, we become frustrated and aggressive Issues with Frustation-Aggression Hypothesis • Not all instances of frustration result in aggression (ex. Golfers don't attack opponents after a bad shot) • Not all aggressive acts are preceded by frustration (many staged fights in NHL aren’t motivated by frustration among the combatants) 3.) Social Learning Theory (Alfred Bandura) • Aggressive behaviours are learned by either (a) receiving a reward directly from the coach/parents/peers for the behaviour or (b) watching other people being rewarded for these behaviours • Social learning view says we see someone else being rewarded for being aggressive so we become aggressive • Social status of the role model or the person being rewarded has a powerful influence 4.) Revised Frustration-Aggression Theory • Frustration leads to anger which increases the likelihood of aggression. But aggression will typically follow only when environmental (or socially learned) cues are right (see slide 12: reward, target availability, and level of sanction) • This is an “interactionist model” that considers the characteristics of the person (“I feel frustrated and angry) and the situation (if I throw a punch I will take a penalty which will hurt my team) before I adopt an aggressive behaviour Game Reasoning (Bracketed Morality) in Sport • People seem to view illegal/immoral/aggressive/rule-violating behaviours as being more acceptable in sport contexts than non-sport contexts • Sport is set aside by society such that “egocentrism” (ex. Greater concern for the self than society)—which is typically the hallmark of immature morality (becomes a valued and accepted principle for moral exchange (ex. Behaviour in sport) • Process: egocentric view may decrease concern for opponents well being, and may make people more prone to aggressive behaviours Stephens and Brenda Bredmeier study • Studied female soccer players. And asked questions about a certain scenario. • Ex. Wendy has the ball on a breakaway. Sue has a chance to tackle wendy from behind, but will likely hurt wendy if she does • Players were asked questions like should Sue tackle wendy? Would you tackle wendy? How many of your teammates would tackle wendy? Rate the goal orientation of your coach Results • more girls said they would tackle Wendy, than said sue should tackle (ex. They know that it is morally wrong but they do it anyways. Egocentric goal of self-fulfillment (winning) supersedes social morality) • players who indicated that they were more likely to tackle sue perceived that 1.) a greater number of teammates would also aggress against Sue in this situation and 2.) their coach was more likely to endorse/reward ego-oriented behaviours • perceived moral atmosphere/climate (generated by teammates, coach, culture) influences likelihood to aggress among team members • kids that said my teammates would do this so I would do it also said their coaches were ego driven than task driven. What the coaches reinforce, the kids tend to internalize Sportspershonship, Fair Play, and Moral Reasoning (Chap 24 pg 553-560) Most rule violations are non aggressive Sportspersonship/Fair Play No single accepted/universal definition of what is fair play or sportspersonship Fair play is when our moral code conflicts with this strategic situation in the game People who are immature cognitively struggle with sportspersonship • sportspersonship/fair play is defined as: an intense striving to succeed (in sport), tempered by a commitment to the play spirit such that ethical standards will take precedence over strategic gain when the 2 (principles) conflict • Richard Vallerand proposed a multidimensional view of sportspersonship that
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