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POL S 210 Notes from sept to nov.docx

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Political Science
POL S211
Robert Nichols

POL S 210 Notes monday september 22 2012 book 7 allegory of the cave something we cannot express in its pure form, only through metaphors it is an image of our character we all begin as prisoners of convention it is possible, however, to move away from this and experience higher forms of knowledge there are people who have been in the cave since childhood, they can only see the wall in front of them however, there is an elevated walk way and further than that a fire burning, people behind us are carrying various objects, the puppeteers voices bounce off the walls the people in this cave assume that the shadows are real things, the prisoners mistake the shadows for real things or people the first thing one sees when they leave the cave, is their own reflection in the water, it is too bright to look directly in the sun right now when they do look at the sun they see it is the highest good, the sun is the object that allows us to see all other objects, if it weren't for the sun we would not be able to see anything the real problem of philosopher kings, is best rulers are the least eager for the job socrates and glaucon speculate on which education is better for them, math and war should be the main thing they study socrates apologizes to glaucon, socrates confused reality with From Evernote: Political Science 210A seminar October 5th 2012 What is Justice? -people getting what they deserve -doing good to others without the expectation of receiving something in return -karma -"justice is virtue of the soul" -how does Cephalus define justice "paying back your debts" -Polemarchus idea of justice "doing good to your friends and doing harm to your others" -Thrasymachus idea of justice "advantage of the stronger" -winners write the laws -virtue-the defining feature of an object done at its best (knife is sharp and is meant to cut things) -Glaucon defines three type of goods 1)those that are just for the sake of consequences 2)something that is good at the moment and longterm (health) 3)things that are inherently good (happiness, knowledge) -ex not running a red-light because of fear of getting caught -ex might pretend to act justly, i.e. when parents tell you to do something so you don't appear a certain way in the eyes of others -myth of Gyges, find a mythical ring to overthrow a king and take over his kingship, when no one is watching, what would you do? -being just and appearing just -city/soul analogy by socrates, pretend the city is a soul, virtuous characteristics and ugly parts, susceptibility to corruption, -role of the 'guardians' - protect the city, they should be educated, strong, loyal, "guard dog" -virtuous -physical training and intellectual training for the guardians so that they are balanced characters, trained to be fierce warriors but also to be loyal and just -starts with music/art/literature to be taught to the guardians -what is socrates view on gods?---he views them as a scapegoat for unjust or just behaviour, also says that gods have a lack of integrity, socrates says that they should be all good beings but in some cases the gods act in their own favour -censorship of stories Political Science 210a Political science 210a October 10th 2012 because music in particular was seen as a form of art that tends to too much passion/love might not be healthy--what kind of passion? --moderate form of passion and one that is organized toward the good homosexual love, many older men sleep with younger men for basic carnal passion, but some do it for what is fine and beautiful the end of book three is socrates trying to tell you it is important to think about justice in how it relates to every aspect of our lives (the way we love, listen to music, work, everything) the warrior guardians must take of their bodies as well, (no drunkenness, good physical training, etc) to truly be just we must apply it to every aspect of our lives, socrates says you have more need for lawyers in an unjust society best guardians need to be balanced in all aspects, in spirituality, in physical fitness, etc. socrates repeatedly warns tha
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