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March 14 Notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes March 14 HAN DYNASTY: 202BCE - 220CE. some books say 206BCE - compilation of five classics (they existed before, but the canonization only happened under the han dynasty) - confucius discussed the shang dynasty, a mythic one that came before th QIN, a golden age. for Han to take up Confucianism as official state policy by Emperor Wu, the han could say they are the return of the golden age: ● the Mandate of Heaven ● state religion ● government jobs went to those studied in confucianism (civil service exams) HAN dynasty is the golden years for confucianism PICKING UP FROM LAST CLASS FOUR BOOKS COLLECTED BY ZHU XI 1. ANALECTS 2. THE GREAT LEARNING: a larger discussion of the character and influence of the noble person. 3. THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN: a book about the notion of equilibrium or balance. similar to daoist texts. Possibly reflects a mystical side. 4. THE MENCIUS: a collection of Mencius' teachings, who lived centuries after mencius. ZHU XI then looked at the teaching in these four books and came to this conclusion: QI & LI qi is the energy in the body (daoist tai chi). but zhu said this is the energy in ALL THINGS li is the organizing rational principle in all things. LI is the principle force, the underlying reality in all thigns, the element that unites in all creation. QI can vary in things, since there are different levels of energy in each thing. these work together. LI (force) organizes the QI (energy) you are to meditate on all things in the world till you find the LI in each thing, the underlying principle. when you have found the LI in everything, you have found the ULTIMATE ORDER of the UNIVERSE LI no longer means just propriety, but now it is the ULTIMATE ORDER OF THE UNIVERSE. ANY EMPLOYMENT IN THE CIVIL SERVICE MEANT EDUCATION IN THE CONFUCIAN TEXTS. WANG YANGMING (1473-1529) took elements from CHAN BUDDHISM (zhu xi took from daoism) - we are inately good - we need to follow the instincts of our original mind - confucianism proved to be flexible - not enough to just do good deeds, you should do them for the right reasons with the right heart. - ability of confucianism to adapt with changing times as dao and buddha get popular has always resurfaced. REACTION OF CONFUCIANISM TO THE WEST there was not always a "bad" reaction to the west as is often assumed. KANG YOUWEI is a reformer who promoted the advantages of preserving China's cultural heritage along with the incorporation of some "western" components, like prosperity, science, etc. envisioned grand commonality where boundaries are abolished to make a grand common confucionism for everyone. MODERN CHINA after the fall of the empire and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, confucianism was disestablished and criticised. something calle NEO-CONFUCIANISM came to be which recognized other groups as important for chinese cullture. engaged the west as a syncretic religion. the fortunes of Confucianism have varied in modern society, for decades the communists were very antagonistic, till after 1980 when the govt would introduce ideals like care and virtue. DAOISM ++++++++++++++++++++ Good example of how approaches to tradition chain over time. moved from elite philosophy to popular vulgar tradition. - new texts have been discovered. - our knowledge of classical daoism improves as these texts are being examined DAOISM IS GENERALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO AREAS 1. PHILOSOPHICAL DAOISM (DAO-CHIA OR JIA) 2. RELIGIOUS DAOISM (DAO-CHIAO OR JIAO) when it first started it was DAO-CHIA or JIA later it became more ritualistic and folk religion like. this was called DAO-CHIAO or JIAO. the dating is not clear cut. some have argued that the philosophy comes first, some say religious, some say both at once. for the purposes of this class: PHILOSO
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