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Lecture

January 22 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO239
Professor
Angela Brkich
Semester
Winter

Description
RELIGIOUS STUDIES Lecture Notes January 22 "ORTHODOX" means that other groups are not. As soon as you start saying something is Orthodox, you imply that other groups are heretical. No group thinks they aren't orthodox unto themselves. SOUTH INDIAN BHAKTI con't CARNATIC music. mystical syllable OHM. this sound is the manifestation of the supreme being and the beginning of the universe. Knowledge of this sound is religious knowledge. If you could control it properly and articulate it properly, the sound itself could lead to a union with the divine. BHAKTI spread to the North in 12C. Some similarities: ● use of vernacular language ● the inclusion of all individuals regardless of class THERE WERE BIG DIFFERENCES with regards to FOCUSES of DEVOTIONS - in the south, vishu or shiva - in the north, rama or krishna or some formless god KABIR, north bhakti poet, one of the most important poets. argued that GOd is beyond all particularities. - he was reabsorbed into regular hindu traditions Major use of poetry in Northern India. Some were reabsorbed but some founded their own traditions, like Nanakh (Sikh). BHAKTI made the message of the vedas available to everyone, prepared devotees to receive a shower of grace. provided hope and consolation. the message from the vedas stayed the same. BHAKTI provides ANOTHER path to liberation: LOVE and TOTAL DEVOTION to God. AUTHOR of TB presents Bhakti as starting in the south and coming north BUT Krishna talked about this in the Bhagavad Gita. so it was one of many types of devotion amongst the time of the writing of Bhagavad Gita and ramayana. then in the south, it developed into a huge tradition within hinduism that many many many people practices. then it spread back into the north in the unified looking method and BHAKTI was practiced in the North as just this one thing done this one way. REFORM & REVIVAL Vasco De Gama arrived in India in 1498 and opened the subcontinent up to the British and French. British very critical of idolatry, sati, and caste system. Contact with the west ushered in a lot of reform. Before this time, the Hindus had a lot of autonomy. - this raises and important point: WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSIDERING "INSIDERS" AND "OUTSIDERS"? is the catalyst of change coming from outside or inside? There is a tendency to view outsiders or foreign powers as the catalyst for change in every situation. IE when people think of the reformation, they say: here's martin luther, he came along with protestantism and changed everything. It is easy to see the outside influence but you must not forget that changes are happening inside, changes that would ahve happened without any outside influence. HINDU INNOVATIONS: BRAHMO SAMAJ - established in 1828. emphasized monotheism, humanism, rationalism, social reform. called attention to inhumane practices and need for reform and education. fought for women's rights and abolishing sati. founded new periodicals. set up new educational institutions. human rights. ARYA SAMAJ - established in late 19c. rejected all anthropomorphic characteristics of the divine. don't renounce society or become an ascetic, engage with and better humanity and uplift the body and soul. the message of teh vedas is all that matters. RAMAKRISHNA MOVEMENT - est. in 19c. basically concluded that all religions lead in the same direction and are true. non- sectarian. opened schools and clinics. dedicated himself to humanitarian works. AUROBINDO ASHRAM - movement that combined nationalism and yoga. the absolute itself was the force behind tthe independence movement. then he had a spiritual awakeneing wher
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