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February 14 Notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes February 14 BUDDHISM triple jewels buddha dharma sangha buddha is not a given name, but an attribution SETTING THE WHEEL IN MOTION out of compassion, he goes out to find people to teach. he finds 5 shamanatras in the deer park. he teaches them the first SUTRA. REMEMBER sutra. it is called SETTING IN MOTION THE WHEEL OF THE DHARMA, commonly known as the wheel turning sermon. it is believed that this sermon set the wheel in motion. he tells them to begin a life of moderation between asceticism and indulgence. - THE MIDDLE WAY. he instructs them in THE FOUR NOBLE TURTHS and the EIGHTFOLD PATH to overcome suffering. these first five become known as the STREAM ENTERERS. he ordains them as his first five disciples and sends them out to teach. he goes from having five to sixty followers very quickly. he then travels for forty five years teaching and gaining disciples. little known about this time. THE DISCOURSE OF THE GREAT DECEASE as he nears eighty, he becomes very weak and falls ill. some say because of a poorly prepared pork meal. some say he is poisoned. some say natural causes. when he became ill, his disciples had many questions about the SANGHA (their community). he says he will not appoint a successor, cause he was never their leader. they were to be self reliant, follow the dharma and monastic rules he established. at the moment of his death he is said to have experienced PARINIRVANA - he reaches the end of the cycle of rebirth, his suffering ceases completely, he is perfectly happy. impossible to understand. remember for test. escapes samsara THE SACRED GEM: THE DHARMA we see the crystallization of buddhism with the move to doctrine. the dharma is believed to hold th etruth's of the buddha's teaching. buddhism's use of dharma is MUCH BROADER than the Hindu usage. this term can be used to refer to the religion in general. dharma is teachings that are firm and eternal truth. these truths include the laws of nature, conduct, morality, etc there are differnet paths to enlightenment: different for the three branches, but these truths are important for all three groups. the center of the dharma are the four noble truths and the eightfold path. super important to understand the four noble truths and eightfold paths for the final exam THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 1. NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING: life is suffering - "dukha", no living person can escape DUKHA. birth, sickness, senility, and death, remember chariot ride: sick guy, old suffering guy, dead guy. dukha also includes a wide variety of things like pain and stress etc. the buddha saw this as a serious ongoing problem, life after life. the nature of human beings is constituted in such a way that suffering is completely unnavoidable. three types of suffering. 2. NOBLE TRUTH OF ORIGIN: how and why suffering comes about. all suffering is caused by TRSNA (often translated as desire, but the sanskrit word only refers to negative desires and addictions, so the best translation is CRAVING). three forms of craving: sensual pleasure; desire for existence; inversion of desire (trying to push yourself away from things you don't like, avoidance). 3. NOBLE TRUTH OF CESSATION: when TRSNA/CRAVING is removed, suffering will cease. Being free of suffering is known as NIRVANA, which is the supreme goal of the buddhist path. NIRVANA is literally translated as BLOWING OUT (usually described as blowing out a candle). 4. NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH: this path leads to the end of suffering and nirvana. (especially inportant for teravada buddhists). the end of craving is
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