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Psyco 258 October 7th Lecture Notes (Chap.3 Perception) Correspond with PPT notes provided by Prof

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Kelly Arbeau

Psyco 258 (October 7 Lecture) Chapter 3 – Perception Perception  Subjective experience of reality… Mind produces what is reality  These subjective experiences of reality are very important to carrying out complex tasks.  Perception is all about taking in information from the world  But our view of reality is based on more than this  React with the incoming stimulation  Phone ringing has no meaning … but if waiting for someone special to call you or if someone calls at 4am... Then the phone ringing would have more meaning  Some animals can perceive sounds that humans cannot. It’s just a different perceptual world that the dog brain creates.  Dogs see little color but our world is full of color -> for us… very functional for our personal experiences -> to see which fruit is ripe so we can eat it Blindsight  Damage to other regions of the brain as well  Blindsight is sight out of consciousness o “Can you see what is in front of you?” “No.” “I want you to reach out and pick up the water bottle.” The person picks up the water bottle. Ask: “Did you see it in front of you?” “No.” “How did you pick it up?” “I don’t know I just did.”  This is quite expensive information processing that happens behind the scenes. It is still available to people  Primary visual cortex is necessary for conscious visual perception Sensation and Perception  We can see from very very far away if nothing is our way. We can hear a watch ticking in a very very very quiet room.  Sensation: From the environment and it is the initial encoding  Perception: Process of interpreting and understanding the sensation  Arbitrary distinction between sensation and perception-> It’s all part of one task. Cant really draw a line in the middle  Picture of rose: o Sensation: pink, green against background o Perception: rose , smell of a rose (perfume) Vision’s 2 tasks:  Object recognition: Process of identifying that object. o Key to learning o Have to combine new info with old info, but we must categorize everything Slide #6 picture of cube  Gestalt psychologists: The person who is receiving an object must therefore be organizing it.  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts -> the whole is different than the sum of its parts  Ambiguous figure: More than one way to perceive this cube. Top or bottom  Why is perception not neutral? You’ve seen one more than the other in your previous experience. -> most of us look at the cube from above. Theories of Visual Object Recognition  Information comes in (sensation) -> we organize it, we give meaning to it, can be based on our past history of dealing with the same thing or same object (perception) Background  Which elements go with which  Then we interpret, if visual then we interpret the orientation of the object.  Then we identify the object, and then we recognize a tremendous number of different patterns, actions, running vs. falling, etc. Template Matching Theory  Retinal image of object that gets transmitted faithfully to the visual centers of the brain and then we compare it other objects  Eg. If two lines that meet at right angles this will be a T  Multiple-trace memory model o A trace of every single experience that we have will remain somewhere in the brain. Stored in memory. o Primary memory or working memory will activate the Long term mem store/ 2ndry memory and the memory traces of the prototype are matched up on the basis of the characteristics of the image itself. o Efficient...Only need to find a small number of images. o Completely breaks down if there is any sort of variant -> eg. If looking at a book a diff way, it wont be recognized as a book. o If you have not even seen your name written out in calligraphy before, you should not be able to recognize it but you are able to recognize it. If your name is flipped 90 degrees you can still recognize it o This model is tooooo simple. Recognition by components theory  Structural descriptions describe parts of objects  Similar to the 3 model.  Difference in types of parts that are assembled to compose the object though  Our ability to recognize many objects only comes down to a number of basic shapes. (geons).  Basic shapes are put together in certain ways and forms to represent everything.  Pay attention to where the components match together.  The basic idea is that we recognize objects by breaking them down, look up combination of components and see which best matches the combination.  Some objects are easily recognized if pieces of a picture are missing. If missing info of where the two components join then we will struggle with the recognition of that object.  Penguin would be 9 geons. Much more info is contained… The more complex a figure is, the easier to recognize. The more info provided, yes its more complex, but easier to process because of all the extra info that is present.  Problem: Too much focus on the object itself. Context matters and so does experience. If teacher pops out a flashlight… It will take us 0.1 ms later to recognize it’s a flashlight compared to if we were on a camping sight. A dog expert can tell diff dogs apart… This theory doesn’t take this into account, it says that anyone can tell any dog apart. Feature Detection Theories  Key idea is that all objects are made up of separable distinct parts called features.  Refer to their shared properties to see how things are similar.  T = horizontal line on top of a vertical line vs. L = horizontal line at the bottom right of a vertical line  R= 3 d
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