• The kinds of relationships that people have are also evident in the groups to which they belong.
• People with independent and interdependent selves also tend to view ingroups and outgroup differently.
• Although everyone has closer and somewhat different kinds of relationships with ingroups and outgroups,
the distinction between them is of more concern for people with interdependent selves .
Two Models of Ingroup Identity
• Westerners appear to base their group identity by The shared Features that they possess. (Entity Model of
• In contrast, East Asian groups appear to base their group identity more on Common Connections that they
might have I Network Model of Ingroup Identity)
• For example, The blue person IS an ingroup member, because they are bonded by connections to a other
people people. Everyone connected are an ingroup.
• American and Japanese participants played an economic trust game on the computer, which involved them
having to decide whether to trust their opponent to give them a fair share of money.
• They were told that their opponent was from one of the following 3 conditions.
• Their opponent was from their own university.
• Their opponent was from another university, at which the participant did not have any acquaintances.
• Their opponent was from another university, at which the participant had at least one acquaintance.
• The dependent variable was the amount of trust that participants showed towards their opponent.
• Results: Japanese showed greater trust for the outgroup member when they had an acquaintance from that
other university. They could apparently imagine ways in which there might be a chain of relationships that
connects them. ( just like the blue guy example above. If you a connection, even if it is an imagined one ▯
you are considered an ingroup.)
Culture and Friendship Formation
• Canadian participants and Japanese participants were asked to describe their experience of seeking help
from closesame sex friend in an open ended questionnaire
• Instrumental Help: Do me a favor
• Emotional Help: Giving or receiving nurturance.
• Informational Help: Giving or receiving help in understanding problems or reducing ambiguity
• Shared Activity: eg: Ask the friend to come with you when appealing a grade.
• Results: Overall both Canadian and Japanese participants reported tangible instrumental help more
frequently than the other types of help. Canadian a lot more through
• Compared to Canadian participants, Japanese participants were less inclined to seek help that directly
removed their personal problems but more inclined to seek help that indirectly aided them to deal with their
personal problems by themselves ( want to solve their own probems mostly themselves but would still
appreciate an aid)
Resultant Intimacy Expectations as a Function of Perceived Cost in Study 1
• Japanese participants reported lower intimacy expectations in their friendship as the help became more
costly to their friend
• Canadian participants assumed moderately higher intimacy levels as the help were perceived to be more
Social Support: EuropeanAmericans are far more likely than East Asians or Asian Americans to actively seek
social support from others. East Asians indeed depend on social support from close others. But, they are more
likely than Westerners to rely on implicit social support.
Are Friendships Only Positive?
• Poem is from Ghana, an interdependent culture. Which show different both positive and negatives of