Chapter 6(2): self concept and personality
Variations within Culture
Dichotomy (like independent vs. interdependent) is used only as an explanatory device. All cultures
are highly heterogeneous and contain a great variety of people. Cultural differences reflect general
patterns of differences, and not allornone statements.
How does this within culture variation arise?
The Individualistic Ideology is well developed in Tokyo & Hokkaido ( japan). Hokkaido is a frontier
(wilderness) of Japan (12) while People in Tokyo is exposed by Western cultures and have
independent philosophies in ti.
Workingclass and middle/upper middle class North Americans were exposed to different types of
cultural message Working class: being resilient message in country music. Middle class:
independent and being free message in the rock music. People in different social class are surrounded
by different kind of cultural resources which influences your resources. Thus producing a within
Differences in Socialization Process
The childs are born in the peripheral place and don’t know anything about the core culture. They go
to school and get job and get olderà get success. They learn the core message of the society and
become a mature member of the culture and then you have the core culture of the nation. The core
culture now is very stable. The main point is how are you going to internalize cultural message ( old
have to do a lot of these). People in relation to core culture vary.
Culture and Human Minds
Each Individual’s patterns of behaviour are not equal to cultural knowledge. Members of a given
culture explore different layers of cultural knowledge (somewhat freely). (Some people don’t care
about culture. Children experience culture a lot more when with grand parent vs just papers. Thus
they are exposed to different message and this as well create variations . Culture is both some internal
(humans idea in the mind/brain) and external as well ( the people you are in contact with)
Culture and Gender
ndependence and interdependence may not only distinguish Western and nonWestern cultures it
might be able to distinguish in gender. Thus, leads to question that Do men and women show parallel
differences in their selfconcepts?
Study: investigated this question by comparing Western (American and Australian) and East Asian
(Japanese and Korean) men and women on a number of measures of independenceinterdependence.
Procedure: measured 4 of these variables.
• Collectivism (e.g., “I am prepared to do things for my group at any time, even though I have
to sacrifice my own interest.”)
• Agency (e.g., “I do things my own way regardless of what my group members expect me to
• Assertiveness (e.g., “I assert my opposition when I disagree strongly with the members of my
• Relatedness (e.g., “I feel like doing something for people in trouble because I can almost feel
Results: Chapter 6(2): self concept and personality
• As expected: Westerners”: agency and assertiveness (independent) and Eastern: collective
and relatedness (interdependent).
• In contrast, the sexes only differed in relatedness (women > men). Men and women were
highly similar for the other three factors. This pattern was largely similar in each culture.
Women (gender) and Asians (culture) are not the same concept. Y ou can see clear and
strong culture variations but gender doesn’t seem to have any effect in a lot of research that
has been done.
Culture and Personality
The Five Factor Model of Personality argues that there are five core traits that universally represent
personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992). O pennes to experience, C onscientiousnes s, xtraversion,
greeableness , and euroticis .
• Openness to Experience: a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas,
imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience.
• Conscientiousness: a tendency to show selfdiscipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement
(perfectly do things/need for achievement). Benefits: avoid trouble/persistence/trust
worthy/intelligent and complete your role is the good aspect but it also have some Negative:
perfectionist and workaholic.
• Extraversion: positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the
company of others. ( comments) engagement with the external world. Enjoy with people and
very energetic. “ lets do something yah”. Centre of the topic in most of the time. Oopposite of