PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Homicide, Prefrontal Cortex, Extraversion And Introversion

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PSYCH104–Lecture5–BehaviourandSensation
Naturevs.Nurture:
● Isitinbornorisitderivedtoone’sexperiencesorisitaproductofthetwo?
o Combinationofthetwo
▪ Justification:TwinsthatarerearedapartwillhavesimilarIQ
scores(highlycorrelational)
● Meansit’snot100%genetic
ReactionRange:
● Rangeofwhichatraitcanvary
o Ex.Veryintelligentparents(reactionrangewillprobablybehighonthe
scale)centeredat110,IQof100isaverage
▪ Lessintelligentparents(reactionrangecenterat70)
● Givesrangedependingonconditions(ex.upbringing)
o Ifchildrendidn’thavemuchaccesstoeducationandexperiences,they
mightgodownontheirreactionrange(50)whentheiractualIQcenteris
70
o Welldefinedupbringing(lotsofinteractionsandexperiences)wouldfall
highonthereactionrange,couldget85whenthecenteris70
● Geneticscreatethereactionranges,buttheenvironmentdetermineswherethey
fallontherange(1520points)
o Ex.Couldvarydownto20(poorupbringing)orupto20(goodupbringing)
PersonalityTraits:
● Braindevelopmentandbrainfunctioningdependsonwhichgenesareexpressed
andnotexpressed
o Ex.Relationshipbetweenneuroticismandactionofserotonin
▪ Genomemalfunctions:peoplecanscorehigheronneuroticism
● Todeterminepersonality:
o Needtoseehowmuchofitisdeterminedbygenesandwhichonesare
determinedbyenvironment
▪ Hardtodefine,morevariabilityforpersonality,solargergroups
areneededtonoticedifferencesthataren’ttakenoffdueto
variability(usesalotoftwinstudies)
MinnesotaTwinStudy:
● Studiedallfourgroups(identicaltwinsrearedtogetherandapart,nonidentical
twinsrearedtogetherandapart)
o Over400pairsoftwins
▪ Controlledthattheywereseparatedatanearlyage
● Separatedby22.5monthsofagesothetwinsreared
apartdidn’tsharethesameenvironment
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● FamilialEnvironment:
o Majorcontributionisone’sindividualexperiencesandenvironment,not
theactualfamilialenvironment(home)
▪ Ex.Environments:Schools,interventions,trauma,etc.
PersonalityandGenetics:
● Athleticism
o Stronggeneticpredispositiontobeathletic
o Certaingeneswillcontrolthedevelopmentofmotorcoordination
(individualswithhighcoordinationwillhavemorepositiveexperiences
whenplayingsportswhichmayleadtothembeingmoreathletic)
Dyslexia:
● Difficultyinlearningtoreadthatcannotbeexplainedbygeneralandsensory
deficits
● Stronggeneticcomponent(.5.93heritabilityofthistrait)
o Genesassociatedwithdyslexiatendtocodeforbraindevelopment
o Individualsusuallyhaveunderdevelopmentofacertainpartofthebrain
becausethegenesaren’texpressedwell
EvolutionPsychology:
● Evolutionaryrootsofwhysomethingexistsandwhywehaveapersonalitytrait
o Adaptation:selectiveadvantagesthatindividualsaremorelikelytouse
▪ Duetosmallmutationsinthegenesofindividualsthatconvey
somenotableadvantagetotheenvironment
o Ex.RespirationGene
▪ Mutationledtoincreasedlungcapacity
▪ Couldgiveanindividualstrongadvantage(ex.runningawayfrom
predators)
▪ Willpassongeneticstothenextgenerationandincrease
reproduction
NaturalSelection:
● Qualitiesthatpromotethesurvivalandreproductionofaspeciestonotbecome
extinctwithinthenextfewgenerations
o Ex.Ifgreenbeetlesaremorelikelytobepreyedupon,theywillnotgetto
sexualmaturityandeventuallybecomeextinct
o Orangebeetleswillgettopassontheirgenesandreproducebecauseno
predatorwantstoeatthem(preferthegreenbeetles)
EvolutionoftheBrain:
● Ex.Foodintreetopsweredeclining
o Individualsthathadtwolegs,wereabletouseweaponswhichledto
bipedalismandtheycouldusehandsforsomethingelsesuchas
retrievingfood
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● Ex.Individualsdevelopedanadaptation(socialgroups)
o Abilitytoorganizewithone’sspecificsconveyedanadvantage
▪ Gatheredmorefood,reproducedmorecomparedtothosewho
wereisolated
o Socialorganizationledtodevelopmentoflanguageandtransitionin
knowledge
▪ Communication,language,planning,andproblemsolving
● Ledtoadvantagesthatspreadthroughthepopulation(led
toincreaseinbrainsize)especiallyinhigherthinking
places(prefrontalcortex)
TypesofAdaptations:
● Broad
o Majoradaptationsthatprovideanadvantage
▪ Adaptationthatprovidesadvantagesofmultiplefunctions
o Ex.Learnfromone’spastexperiences
● Domain
o Minuteadaptations
o Ex.Detectingcheatinganddeceptionofothers
o Onlyactsononesystem
▪ Ex.Thinkingisacomponent,notjustonesection
● Solvingproblemsisitsownfeature
● Personalityisitsownfeature
● Consciousnessisitsownfeature
EvolutionaryAdaptations:
● Ex.Languagesdependonthefirstlanguagechildrenareexposedtoatanearly
age
o Childrencanmasterthisfirstlanguageatanearlyage
▪ Expressedearlyresultsinanadvantage
o Deafchildrenthatcanlearnsignlanguagegetthesameadvantageatthe
earlyageaschildrenwhoarelearningspokenlanguage
● Ex.HumanFaces
o Newbornsreactaffectionatelyathumanfaces
▪ Mixingupthepicturedoesnotpromotethesameresponse
▪ Formsthecaregiverandmotherbond
▪ Lesslikelytofeelabandoned
● Ex.BelongingtoaGroup
o Cooperatingwithotherstoformadhesivegroups
▪ Reachsexualmaturityeasier
Ex.SocialAnxietyintheFaceofDisapprovalinGroups 
o Assumethattheywillgetkickedoutandrejected(universalfeeling)

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