April 2 – Crimes of the Powerless
2 hours, 75 questions
Half textbook and half lecture
• Most often the marginalized are those who are being taken up by the popo
• Sometimes the non marginalized also get taken up by the popo
• A lot of marginalized people don't have the necessary resources to fight in
court (ex. Lawyers)
• A lot of marginalized kids don't have homes or parents to go home to.
• In Canada, we figure the best way to deal with marginalized populations and
teaching them how to behave is through the CJS
• Most of those who are taken in by the police are the aboriginals
Aboriginal Youth and Governance
Govt reports and investigations suggest:
• Aboriginals are 20% more likely to be charged when apprehended
• More likely to be denied bail. Those who are denied bail and held in pre-trial
detention are more likely to be found guilty and receive harsher sentences
• To spend more time in pre-trial detention
• To be charged with multiple offences (often for administrative violations).
Aboriginals are more likely to get these type of charges because they don't
mesh well with the lives of many aboriginal people
• Part of the reason why they are charged is due to racism.
• Sometimes its hard for people to do things like community service due to it
being too far. This is an administrative violation.
• Aboriginal lives are often overburdened by violence
• Aboriginal women are 3x more likely to be victims of domestic violence • The homicide rate for aboriginal people grossly exceeds that of other
• Between 1997 and 2000, the aboriginal homicide rate was 7x that of non
• Why is it the case that violence disproportionately affects aboriginal peoples?
How do systemic conditions become embedded in ontological being?
• Drugs, alcohol, violence and homelessness present significant problems for
• Residential school officials forcibly removed aboriginal kids from their parents
and cultural milieu for years at a time while they attempted to indoctrinate
Why “Aboriginal” Youth?
• If we can agree that there is no crime gene, we must ask why aboriginals are
overrepresented in the justice system
• Population is much younger than the Canadian average
• This growing group of young aboriginals is more likely to live in poverty
• Recent years have witnessed a demographic shift involving aboriginal
peoples of another kind
• Tremendous implications and challenges for indigenous youth (how to cope
with this new/emerging reality?)
Aboriginal Youth and Young Offenders
• Overrepresentation at all levels of the CJS: • Higher arrest rate