SOC224 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Sexual Assault, Broken Windows Theory, Social Control Theory

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25 Jul 2016
Jan 5
Video: Shoulders, by Shane koyczan
The person believes in god. mythology
What he talks about, and how it connects to society.
Often times, placing a label of deviance on someone, disconnects us from the person. So this interconnectedness
is important
Converted mythology to reality.
Why is sociology important? Based on the video
Modern sociology: analysis of social problems with social phenomenon and trends, intersecting with other fields
Sociology is all about questions.
Jan 7 (Guest speaker – Sexual Assault Centre)
1 in 5 students experienced sexual assault. Average age is 20y
o1 in 6 men.
o67% spoken to a friend about the experience.
RAPE is the primary distription
Sexual attraction, sexual fulfillment
Miscommunication  causes the assault
oWe live in a rape culture. Norms support it
oWe’re allowing it to continue.
RAPE culture: inappropriate comments, eyes linger on our bodies.
oCanada has removed the term RAPE, but used sexual assault
oSexual assault: any form of sexual contact without voluntary consent
Forces or unwanted kissing, fondling, oral sex contact, vaginal or anal penetration
Sexual assault and rape are not synonymous
Sexual harassment. They are different experiences (harassment vs assault)
Sexual harassment: any unwanted sexual attention or communication that is intimidating, humiliating,
or offensive
This can be in verban, written, or visual form
Ppl are assaulted by someone they know. (acquaintance assault)
oPpl who commit sexual assault can be anyone! Even tho can be strangers, they’re usually acquintances
o1 in 6 men. They are seen as warriors. The perpetratos was probably bigger than them, or used drug?
Men are stereotyped to want to have sex. It’s just an expectation from their partners
Anxiety or fear, etc. can also cause ejacuation, orgasm, etc.
Sexual assault is not bc of sex, but for power.
oSex is the tool chosen by the perpetrator
Consent: voluntary, ongoing, conscious agreement to engage in sexual activity
oCoercion: when an individual uses threats or intimidation to make someone commit to sex.
They will try to bargain down. Instead of mouth, they’ll use hands, etc.
oForce  we think of physical force. But there are non physical force too.
Blackmailing, guilt tripping, intimidating,
There is no consent if…
1. someone else says “yes”
2. it is obtained through the abuse of a position of power, trust, or authority.
Not consensual at all
3. one person does not say “yes” or says or implies “no” through their words or behaviors
THERE IS NO miscommunication in sexual assault!! If someone says no it means no!
operpetrators see the NO, and sees it more as a powering act.
4. one person is incapable of giving consent (eg unconscious, sleeping, drunk, high)
alcohol doesn’t make us do what we wont do when we’re sober
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but alcohol will make you do things you DO want to do. Provides enough liquid courage to something you
already want to do.
Perpetrator  using liquid to do what they do want to do
5. One person changes their mind. All of us have consent it, and is able to then say no
Even in the act, a person can still say NO during sex.
Myths and stereotypes:
oSurvivor gets the blame
oPerpetrator gets excused
oThese go hand in hand. If survivor gets the blame, the perpetrator means will be excused
Supprting a survivor:
1) Listen. Don’t ask “why
2) Believe
3) Explore options (going to Sexual Assault Centre, hospital, reporting to police, doing nothing)
Only 9% of sexual reports are reported.
Jan 14: studying deviance
“You have to be deviant if you’re going to do anything new” – David Lee
1. Review objective/subjective continuum
2. City of Edmonton Youth Council article & discussion
3. Studying deviance – The act vs. The Social Process
Objective end of continuum – focus on studying deviant acts, people, characteristics.
Subjective end of continuum – social construction focus and our perceptions of/reactions to the act.
oCalls upon the perception and reaction of people. And that it’s a social process that everyone is engaged in.
oThink of it as a continuum. They’re not separate, but more opposite
Edmonton City Council to Vote on Vegetarian Choice
Article was about: youth asking the council meeting to not eat meat. Controversial bc alberta is a beef community. To
lower beef consumption  big impact on carbon footprint
1) What is your immediate reaction to this story?
oEconomical  vegan food is less expensive than eating meat
since their foods are all catered.
oOver stepping their boundaries. If you personally don’t eat meat but others may still want to.
oShocked  if don’t eat meat  direct attack on alberta’s meat industry
oCity council decided not to talk about it all. Didn’t see it was a huge issue
2) Using the terms and perspectives we learned on Tuesday, who/what is “deviant” in the story? Why?
oThey’re asking the council to violate the norm of alberta (dominant social norm in alberta)
oSocial reaction  public’s call back to the article influenced whether they decided to vote on it or not
oRelationship with the economy.
oWas youth council being deviant?
Young people are not engaged, they’re out causing troubles. For youth council to continue to do what
they concern. Young people are not seen as having the political power.
Studying Deviance – The Act vs. The Social Process
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oWhere someone falls on the continuum will impact how they choose to study deviance and what theoretical perspectives are
Where you fall on the sub/ob continuum
If you’re on obj side  wont draw on social construct research for the method of study. I would stay in the obj frame.
Studying the Act
Objective side of continuum
Social psychology intersections with sociology
Sociologists – assess how status characteristics, social relationships, and contexts influence individual
oSocial psychology looks at the mechanisms through which social factors affect individuals specifically (Thoits
personal, individual effects that have on specific people.
In psychology, details of deviance in terms of who ppl are and how their lives. Interest lies on the
indivudal’s characteristics, etc.
Implicit and explicit impact on social psychology
It is usually sociology drawing from psych and not the other way around
3 places where sociology and social psychology both study:
Others: division of labour, deviance in conformity, socioloziation, attitidues.
oBe able to see that the balance of ideas of conformity and deviance
oSociologists looks more at deviance vs social psych looks at conformity
Etiology theory  includes labelling theory, diff association, conflict, and control theories 
inheritantly tie to but is diff from psychologisgist approach
Sociologization theory  childhood development, sociologization process. But sociologists examines
sociology=zation compact not on the indivudal (if want to look at sociolozation, choose a book, eg
beauty and the beast, to look at how young human are socialized to be women. Ideas about
partnership, hetero___, race.
Psycologist would have ppl go to labs and answer surveys.
Attitude: to predict behavior. But sociologist interested in distribution of the attitudes (instead
of social construction bubbles, how we understand those things). Psychologist looks at how
attitudes that are more like weak predictors for _____
oSoc  bigger broader sense. Do more quantitative work (interviews, observation – closer to the obj
oPsyco  predictors of behaviors. To map out the cause of relationhip bw conformity and deviance.
They also do more quantitative work
Both subj and obj are valuable forms of knowledge. Cant have obj more like quantitvative
research without the piece. Caring for ppl’s stories and their lives and seeing their
consequences are.
Social processes vs. Mental processes
Sociologist will use social psychology to link those social prcesses to the impacts on specific ppl. Bc if don’t do that,
then why would it matter if u study deviance? It actually impacts the lives of people.
Milgrim study:
-Conforming to the rules can have really negative consequences
-Found that:
oMost ppl thought that they wouldn’t do it themselves to shock someone that much
oOr that the teacher would stop and not continue
o2/3 teachers continued on shocking until the maximum amount of voltage
-key to the obedience was:
othe experimenter was the motivator for the teacher to continue.
-Another Psychological study :
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