Conventional or “Street” Crime
• Strangers and the fear of crime (often the crime is associated with the unknown )
• Interpersonal crimes in Canada & the US (people who know someone they have to fear more from these people then stranger in
• 43% of murders involve family members, friends or acquaintances; 13% involve strangers; 44% unknown relationship between
offender and victim
Conventional and street crimes in the US:
• In 2011, an estimated 1,203,564 violent crimes occurred nationwide (huge number)
• A decrease of 3.8 percent from the 2010 estimate (thus a downward trend though)
• When considering 5 and 10year trends, the 2011 estimated violent crime total was 15.4 percent below the 2007 level and 15.5 percent
below the 2002 level.
• There were an estimated 386.3 violent crimes per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011.
• Aggravated assaults accounted for the highest number of violent crimes reported to law enforcement at 62.4%.
• Robbery comprised 29.4% of violent crimes,
• Forcible rape accounted for 6.9%, and murder accounted for 1.2% of estimated violent crimes in 2011.
• Firearms were used in 67.7% of the nation’s murders, 41.3% of robberies, and 21.2% of aggravated assaults.
• It is often the function of what society provides to the people in society that determines the rate of crimes.
• overall, we are seeing a decreasing the number of violent crimes.
• “Policereported” crime has been decreasing and at its lowest point since 1972
• The lowest times of crime that are are sitting on.
• In 1990s though that increased but other then that generally in Canada it was decreasing crime rates overall.
“Policereported” crime in Canada
• Canadian police services reported about 2 million Criminal Code offences in 2011, almost 110,000 fewer than in 2010.
• The decline in the crime rate was driven primarily by decreases in the number of property offences, primarily theft under $5,000
(30,100 fewer incidents),
• Other crimes such as mischief (24,100 fewer incidents), breakins (15,800 fewer incidents) and theft of motor vehicle (10,100 fewer
incidents) have also contributed to the decline.
Crime severity index:
• Formula that has been devised by stats canada that measures the seriousness of the crime.
• Serious and the length of the sentence that criminal code gives is told by this index.
• Crimes in NWT are MORE SERIOUSNESS and the length of the crimes sentence given.
• Aggravated assault, and other violent crimes (no need to take life though)
Crime severity across provinces
• Provinces in the west reported higher crime rates and crime severity compared to those in the east, continuing a wellestablished
• As has been the case since 1998, Saskatchewan reported the highest CSI in 2011, followed by Manitoba, British Columbia and
• Ontario had the lowest Crime Severity Index in the country in 2011, followed by New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
• Nova Scotia was the only eastern province who’s CSI in 2011 was above the national Index.
• Most jurisdictions have seen a decrease in the CSI over the past 10 years.
• Since 2001, the CSI has declined in every province and territory with the exception of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest
Territories and Nunavut.
• If we look at each cities crime severity index we see that Regina: most high severity index followed by Saskatoon, Winnipeg and
Source: Statistics Canada, 2012.
• In 2011, there were 598 homicides in Canada, 44 more than the previous year, marking a 7% increase in the homicide rate (1.7 per
• The homicide rate has generally been decreasing since peaking in the mid1970s.
• With 109 homicides in 2011 (32 more than in 2010), Alberta saw the largest increase in homicide rates in 2011, up 39%, followed
by Quebec (+24%) with 21 more homicides than in 2010.
• With 28 fewer homicides in 2011 than in 2010, the rate in Ontario reached its lowest point since 1966. • British Columbia's homicide rate was the second lowest seen in the province since 1964, despite a 4% increase between 2010 and
• Manitoba maintained the highest rate of homicide among the provinces for the fifth year in a row, followed by Saskatchewan and
• Among the provinces, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador reported the lowest rates.
• Yukon was the only jurisdiction to report no homicides.
• Aggravated assault, and other violent crimes (no need to take life though) seem to highest in the NWT regons.
• Sexual assaults:
• Police reported over 3,800 incidents of sexual violations against children in 2011.
• The rate of sexual violations against children rose 3% between 2010 and 2011, making it one of the few categories of violent
offences to increase in 2011.
• Among the specific offences included in this category, the rate of invitation to sexual touching (+8%) and luring a child via a
computer (+10%) increased.
• Sexual interference remained stable and sexual exploitation decreased 7%.
APPROACHES TO STREET CRIMES
• LIFESTYLE/EXPOSURE THEORY (Hindelang, Michael, et al.): People’s routine activities and lifestyles put them at higher or
lower risk of being victimized
• Focuses on crimes (when is it and who is likely to be the victim of crime) and not criminals ( who did it)
• ROUTINE ACTIVITIES THEORY (1):
• Developed from lifestyle/exposure theory by Cohen and Felson
• Three factors must be present for a crime to occur
1. A motivated offender: a crime will not take place unless someone wants to commit it
2. A suitable target: e.g. conspicuous display of property
3. Ineffective guardianship of that target
• A change in any of these factors can increase or decrease the incidence of crime.
Where do violent incidents take place?
• 38% in bars, restaurants, malls, schools; 29% in or around a private residence; 25% on the streets, in parks, etc.
• When? Summer months and in December(a lot of people are out may be). Usually in the evenings – 6pm to 12 am. (may be a lot of
human interaction with other people after work/no light etc)
PATTERNS OF VICTIMIZATION
• VIOLENT CRIMES
o Younger people, males, single/divorced, those who spend evenings away from home
o Lower income people more often victims
o Minorities more likely to be victimized
o Alcohol consumption increases chances of victimization
o Repeat victims – those victimized are more likely to be victimized again
CRIMINAL HOMICIDES (1)
• CRIMINAL HOMICIDE (same idea that someone dies but difference in how we say it. This is NOT grammar related but other
factors play role)
o 1st and 2nd degree murder
• MURDER – “the willful (nonnegligent=careless or reckless is out of the picture) killing of one human being by another” (FBI
2008)▯You knew what you are doing and intended to kill.
• First degree murder
o When killing is planned and deliberate;
o When victim is a police officer or prison guard on DUTY;
o When murder occurs in connection with offences such as sexual assault or kidnapping
• Second degree murder
o Not premeditated or preplanned.
o Sentence in Canada (1 and 2 degree murder): Imprisonment for life – 25 years
o Accused convicted of 2 degree murder may be paroled after 10 years under certain circumstances
• MANSLAUGHTER When there is no intent to kill (men Rae)
• Voluntary manslaughter: Sudden passion (it would not matter if he had bad temper) • Involuntary manslaughter: unintentional killing as a result of recklessness or gross negligence (negligent or not paying attention
i.e. the child should not be given drugs)
o Punishment: Statutorily, imprisonment for life but often ranges from 4 – 15 years in reality.
o When punishing, It matters HOW the crime was committed that are important
o Use of firearm could be an aggravating factor
Two categories of sentence determinants: Aggravating & mitigating factors
1. Aggravating factors
• Those facts about the crime, the defendant or the victim that tend to make the crime more serious, and thus more deserving of a
harsher sentence (important)
• They include brutality of the crime, the defendant’s criminal history and the vulnerability of the victim, among others.
• The more aggravating factors there are, the more likely i