Soc chapter 13
Demography – the study of human populations
Ecological footprint – an estimate for gauging how much land and
water area a human population requires to produce the resources it
consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology
-For every year humans occupy earth it takes the earth 1.5 years to
regenerate the damage.
Population checks – factor that limit population growth ie natural
disasters & war
Human carrying capacity - The number of people that can be
supported in a given area indefinitely
Factors that contribute to population growth:
1. Fertility – the actual level of childbearing for an individual or a
population; the total fertility rate is an estimate of number of live
births a female can be expected to have in her lifetime based
on current age-specifics rates. The crude birth rate is the actual
number of live births in a given year per 1000 people.
2. Mortality – indicidence of death in a given population influenced
by factors that promote longevity (clean water) and reduce
(diseases); measured by crude death rate (number of deaths in
a given year per 1000 people). Also the infant mortality rate- the
number of deaths of infants under one year of age.
3. Migration – the movement of people into or out of a country.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of
persons entering and leaving a country during a specified year
per 1000 people.