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Lecture

GOPH 375 Lecture Notes - Water Mass, Hypocenter, Submarine Landslide


Department
Geophysics
Course Code
GOPH 375
Professor
All

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Midterm 1: 35-40 mc chapters 1-8
Chapter 5
Seismic risk = vulnerability X seismic hazard. Vulnerability increases with lots of population, tall
buildings, highways etc
CNSN: Canadian National Seismograph Network monitors EQ activity
o EQ’s trigger two rapid responses (within minutes): Automated Natural Hazard Alert
System (ANHAS-alerts railways/utility companies, etc) and shake maps (representation
of the ground shaking during an EQ)
Seismic zonation: Building codes to be EQ resistant building materials that don’t cause
resonance
Resonance: overlap between seismic wave’s natural frequencies and foundation
buildings/materials. Your building resonance shouldn’t match the ground materials (earthquake
frequencies at all)
BC has a large hazard for mega-thrust EQ
Canada’s Largest earthquake: Queen Charlotte Islands
Figure 5.2/5.4/5.3
Figure 5.13/5.17 (salt water killed the trees)
Intraplate earthquakes: not on plate boundaries, inside continent. Deformation forces, existing
faults are reactivating, failing due to current stress and generating EQ (St. Lawrence River)
o Supposed correlation between intraplate EQ epicentres that line up with fracture zones,
o North American plate going over the Great Meteor Hotspot (thermal anomaly currently
under NA plate)
Continents are rifted, drifted and reassembled in different patterns. Sometimes rifting process
stops before separating a continent, leaving weak spots in continents and failed rifts
5.20 (Quebec along the St Lawrence valley river) this is along an old plate rift. Even though
there is no plate edge there now, there was one. Old boundary likely to have earthquakes
5.12: map distribution of the earthquakes?
Cascadia subduction zone: transform Queen Charlotte Fault
Chapter 6
Volcanoes are the last section covered chapter 8
1. Moment magnitude = area of rupture X elastic energy release/area
2. Wave equation
a. Velocity = frequency X wavelength
i. Period =1/frequency
3. Velocity = √ (gravity*depth)
Tsunamis
6.1 examples and fatalities; Figure 6.16
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