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Theories on Culture.docx

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University of Calgary
Management Studies
MGST 391
Ahmad Ali Sohrabi

Theories on Culture Harrison and Handy’s Work: (gods of management) There are 4 types of culture in organizations: i) Power Culture (Zeus)  All decisions are centered on one person i.e. founder of business  For small entrepreneurial companies ii) Task Culture (Athena)  No dominant leader  Principal concern is to get the job done iii) Role Culture (Apollo)  Organization has formal structure and well established rules and procedures  People do their jobs as specified in their contracts  For large organizations where work is predictable iv) Person/Existential Culture: (Dionysus)  Organization‟s purpose is to serve interest of individuals within it. Miles and Snow’s Work: (models of strategic culture) There are 4 approaches to strategy in organizational culture. 1. Defenders (doing things right)  Low risk, low profits  Secured niche market e.g. accountants, engineers etc  Tried and trusted solution 2. Prospectors (doing the right thing)  High risk, high profits  Move into new ways e.g. designers  Take initiatives 3. Analysers  Balance risk and profit  Using core stable products & markets e.g. managers  Follow the change, do not initiate change 4. Reactors  Do not have viable strategy Denision’s model: Strategic orientation of firm towards environment Focus on internal Focus on external Stable environment Consistency Culture Mission Culture Formal ways of behavior, predictability and Customer oriented. (hospital, church) reliability(bureaucratic) Involvement Culture (satisfied employees give Adaptability Culture ( fashion co.) Changing environment performance e.g. Orchestra) Focus on external environment which is changing. Deal and Kennedy’s work: (Association of culture & risk) Culture is function of “willingness of employees to take risk” and “Their feedback” Slow feedback
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