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Chapter 14 .docx

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Management Studies
MGST 391
Ahmad Ali Sohrabi

Chapter 14 : Motivation and Performance Individuals Variables affecting Job performance: Organizational and Social variables  Social environment  Type of Incentives  Type of Training and Supervision Situational variables  Characteristics of Organization  Physical environment Physical and Job variables  Methods of work  Work space and arrangements  Designing and condition of work equipment Individual (non work) variables  Age  Sex  Physique  Education  Experience  Intelligence  Aptitude  Motivation  Personality Personality and individual Development: (Individuals are different because their personality is difference and personality differences affect work behavior). Personality is the total patterns of thinking; feeling and behaving that constitute the individual’s distinctive method of relating to the environment. According to Chris Argyris, as people mature they display certain characteristics: 1. Increasing self awareness 2. Acceptance of equal or superior relationship to others 3. A tendency to move from dependence towards independence 4. Diversification of behavior patterns 5. An increasing tendency to activity, rather than passivity 6. Deepening and more stable interests Factors affecting personality differences: - Authoritarinism - Need of achievement - Self-esteem - Attitude - Feedback on performance - controls and standard - Moderately difficult tasks - levels of risk taking - Psychological success - challenging goals and achievement - Commitment - willingness Motivation (Content theories VS Process Theories) Motivational Theories McGregor’s theory X and theory Y:  Theory X---People dislike work and responsibility, they have to be controlled, threatened, punished to get work done.  Theory Y---Work is as natural as play and rest, they accept responsibility, they give way to consultation and self growth. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: ( A ranked structure of behavior stimulating within individual which explains motivation)  Self actualization (fulfillment of personal potential, freedom, fairness, justice)  Esteem needs (Independence, status, respect, gaining knowledge)  Social needs (relationship, affection, belonging)  Safety needs (security, threat)  Physiological needs (food, cloth, shelter) Alderfer’s ERG theory:  E-----Existence  R---Relatedness  G---Growth McClelland’s needs:  Need for achievement, Need for power, Need for affiliationp management  Power  These needs could be taught from top to lower managers. Entrepreneur  Achievement Employees  Affiliation Herzberg’s two factor theory: There are 2 groups of work related factors.  Hygiene factors (remove dissatisfaction e.g. Salary, Job security, Working conditions, Interpersonal relations)  Motivators (creates satisfaction e.g. Status, growth in job, power authority and responsibility) Vroom’s expectancy theory: Motivation shall depend upon expected results of his efforts i.e value attached to an outcome. F (Force i.e. motivation) = V (valence i.e. strength for preference of outcome) * E (Expectancy i.e. expectation that performance will lead to outcomes) Porter and lawler’s model: (extension of expectancy theory) Valence Force Expectancy Ability Understanding Satisfaction Actual Performance Importance of Success/Failure reward Intrinsic rewards Extrinsic rewards (interest, enjoyment) (pay, bonus) Equity theory: Reward of 1/Output of 2 = Reward of 2/ Output of 2 Satisfaction = (atleast fair reward, not maximum reward) - people compare results and rewards - people get upset if inequity in rewards Goal theory: Goals can motivate. Psychological contracts “Members will expend efforts and organization will reward them in exchange”  Coercive contract (returns are inadequate compensation; involuntary contribution)  Calculative contract (returns are defined; voluntary contribution)  Cooperative contract (employees participate also in decision making) Pay and Job satisfaction Under Herzberg’s theory, Pay is the most important of all hygiene factors. Under Expectancy theory, Pay motivates if pay is linked with performance and is valued by individual. Difficulties in incentive schemes:  No motivation if employee already enjoys good package.  External factors may affect output and reward.  Not suitable in groups Assessment of satisfaction and moral: Through Productivity, Absenteeism and Turnover. Types of incentive schemes: - performance related pay (PRP) i.e commission - bonus schemes - profit sharing e.g opportunity of being member of the company. Job Design (with parameters of Mintzberg) “Job design is the process of  determining the specific tasks to be performed (Job specialization),  methods used in performing these tasks (training and indoctrination in organizational values), and  how job relates to other works in organization (regulation of behavior). Change in job design may be : 
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