Chapter 17 : Groups in Organisation
“A group is any collection of people who perceives themselves to be a group”.
Sense of identity
Loyalty to group
Purpose & Leadership
“A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals for
which they hold themselves accountable”
A team could be:
Contains specialists in different areas
Freer and faster communication between disciplines in organization
Multi skilled teams
Contains people who possess many skills
Tasks can be shared in flexible way.
Development of team: (by Tuckman)
Forming (collection of individuals)
Storming (targets are set and trust increases)
Norming (work sharing, individual requirements and expectations)
Performing (execution of task)
Members/Roles of team: (by Belbin)
Coordinator (presides and coordinates)
Shaper (dominant, extrovert, task oriented)
Plant (introverted, source of ideas)
Monitor evaluator (analytical rather than creative)
Implementer (administrator not leader, scheduling, planning)
Team worker (supportive, noticed in absence)
Problems with team:
Group norms restrict individual personality.
Conflict in roles and relationship
Not suitable for all jobs
Too much harmony (group think) or differences of opinion
Creating an effective team work: (A contingency approach by Handy)
Objective is met within time Group satisfaction
Management can operate on both „givens‟ and „intervening factors‟ to affect the „outcomes‟.
Indications of Effective Team:
Interruption to work rate
Conflict in organizations: (Individual / Group level)
Different views conflict in organizations:
The happy family view:
Organizations are essentially harmonious.
There are cooperative structures to achieve common goals with no systematic conflict of interest.
The conflict view:
Organizations have conflict on individual and group level.
Members battle for limited resources, status and reward.
Conflict could be destructive if not handled carefully.
The evolutionary view:
Conflict is seen as a useful basis for evolutionary change and not for revolutionary change.
Could be constructive if handled by arguments or competition(Handy).
Causes and tactics of conflicts between departments:
Operative goal incompatibility
Task interdependence (if managed badly)
Scarcity of resources
Power distribution (Boundaries of authority)
Uncertainty (in change)