Chapter 16 : Management and Human Resource
Leaders have certain qualities (Inborn or Acquired) e.g. Helicopter factor i.e certain traits makes a person good leader.
A manager’s style is the way in which the manager handles his relationship with the task and with subordinates.
Leadership is an interpersonal process and is affected by behavior. To create an effective group, characteristics of followers
should match with characteristics of leader.
Huneryager and Heckman:
Manager makes decisions and enforces them
Manager makes decisions and announces them
Manager sells his decisions
Manager suggests own ideas and asks comments
Manager suggests his idea and amends as per comments
Manager presents problem, asks for ideas and makes a decision
Manager presents a problem and asks to solve it.
Manager allows his subordinates to act freely within prescribed limits.
- Management vs Leadership
- Manager VS Leader
- Key leadership skills
- Developing managers as leaders
- Theories of leadership
i) Trait theory
ii) Style theory
iii) Contingency theory
- Interpersonal skills
- Decision making
- Time management
- Self development skills
- Goal oriented
- Team empowering
Wholly task oriented
Wholly people oriented
Lickert’s 4 elements presented in effective managers:
1. Expect high level of performance
2. Employee centered
3. No close supervision
4. Participative style 4 styles of leadership:
Style Characteristics Strengths Weaknesses
Tell Manager makes decisions Quick decision making No initiative and
(autocratic) and enforces them Suitable for routine work. commitment
One way communication
Sell Manager makes decisions Reasons are told to staff. No initiative and
(persuasive) but convince staff to They have better idea of commitment
motivate them. what to do One way communication
Manager presents Employees contribute Slow decision making
problem, asks for ideas knowledge and Staff may not be mature.
and makes a decision experience.
Initiative and commitment
Joins Leader and followers High motivation and Slow decision making
(democratic) make decisions on commitment Staff may not be mature.
consensus. Shares knowledge and Conflict may arise.
Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid:
Country club Team
Concern for people Middle road
Low Impoverished Task
Concern for production
Contingency approach to leadership: (by Charles Handy)
Factors which contribute to the success of leader:
Power, authority and responsibility:
Power is ability to do.
Following are different forms of powers in an organization:
Position power/legitimate power
Enjoyed by senior management.
It is associated with particular job, almost authority.
Resource power (reward power)
Enjoyed by senior management
Control over resources and power to grant them e.g. promotion
Physical power (coercive power)
Enjoyed by senior/middle management
Power of superior force but mostly absent.