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Chapter 16 .docx

5 Pages

Management Studies
Course Code
MGST 391
Ahmad Ali Sohrabi

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Chapter 16 : Management and Human Resource Leadership Trait Theories: Leaders have certain qualities (Inborn or Acquired) e.g. Helicopter factor i.e certain traits makes a person good leader. Style theories: A manager’s style is the way in which the manager handles his relationship with the task and with subordinates. Leadership is an interpersonal process and is affected by behavior. To create an effective group, characteristics of followers should match with characteristics of leader. Huneryager and Heckman:  Dictatorial  Manager makes decisions and enforces them  Manager makes decisions and announces them  Autocratic  Manager sells his decisions  Manager suggests own ideas and asks comments  Democratic  Manager suggests his idea and amends as per comments  Manager presents problem, asks for ideas and makes a decision  Laissez-faire  Manager presents a problem and asks to solve it.  Manager allows his subordinates to act freely within prescribed limits. Leadership: - Definition - Management vs Leadership - Manager VS Leader - Key leadership skills - Developing managers as leaders - Theories of leadership i) Trait theory ii) Style theory iii) Contingency theory Leadership skills: - Entrepreneurship - Interpersonal skills - Decision making - Time management - Self development skills - Competitive - Goal oriented - Team empowering - motivated Wholly task oriented Leaders Wholly people oriented Lickert’s 4 elements presented in effective managers: 1. Expect high level of performance 2. Employee centered 3. No close supervision 4. Participative style 4 styles of leadership: Style Characteristics Strengths Weaknesses Tell Manager makes decisions  Quick decision making  No initiative and (autocratic) and enforces them  Suitable for routine work. commitment  One way communication Sell Manager makes decisions  Reasons are told to staff.  No initiative and (persuasive) but convince staff to  They have better idea of commitment motivate them. what to do  One way communication Manager presents  Employees contribute  Slow decision making Consults problem, asks for ideas knowledge and  Staff may not be mature. and makes a decision experience.  Initiative and commitment Joins Leader and followers  High motivation and  Slow decision making (democratic) make decisions on commitment  Staff may not be mature. consensus.  Shares knowledge and  Conflict may arise. experience Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid: High Country club Team Concern for people Middle road Low Impoverished Task Low High Concern for production Contingency approach to leadership: (by Charles Handy) Factors which contribute to the success of leader:  Leader’s personality  Subordinates  Task  Environment Power, authority and responsibility: Power is ability to do. Following are different forms of powers in an organization:  Position power/legitimate power  Enjoyed by senior management.  It is associated with particular job, almost authority.  Resource power (reward power)  Enjoyed by senior management  Control over resources and power to grant them e.g. promotion  Physical power (coercive power)  Enjoyed by senior/middle management  Power of superior force but mostly absent.  Expert power
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